LEAN

MANUFACTURING
Module-1
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POM04
Lean Manufacturing
 “Lean manufacturing” or “Lean Production” is
the Systematic elimination of waste.
 It’s a relatively new concept .
 The concept has been taken from “Toyota
Production System”.
 Toyota Production System is modeled on the
“JIT philosphy”

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3 M’s of Lean

 Muda – Waste
 Mura – Inconsistency
 Muri - Unreasonableness
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What is called as Waste?
Waste(Muda) is broadly defined as anything other
than which adds value or service .

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Muda can be grouped into following
categories

Overproduction
Waiting
Transporting
Processing
Inventory
Movement
Defects

Types of Waste or Muda
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Types of Waste or Muda
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Types of Waste or Muda
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Toyota Production System
 Highest Quality
 Lowest cost
 Shortest Lead Time
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The goal of TPS
Toyota Production System
Model
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Toyota Production System
Model
TWO PILLARS

Just In Time

The JIT concepts aim to produce and
deliver the right parts, in the right
amount, at the right time using the
minimum necessary resources.


Jidoka (Building-in quality)

Building in quality at the process:
TPS aspires for processes that are
capable of making intelligent decisions
and shutting down automatically at the
first sign of an abnormal condition
Enabling separation of man from
machine in work environments
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Elements of JIT
The Three elements of JIT are
1)Takt Time
2)Flow Production
3)Pull System
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1.Takt Time
Takt Time is the pace of Production
needed to meet the customer demand
Takt Time = Available production time
Total Daily Demand
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Takt Time Calculations
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Available production time: 8 hours × 60 minutes = 480
minutes
Minus two 10- minute breaks = -20 minutes
Minus one 10-minute shift start meeting =- 10 minutes
Minus 30- minute lunch break = -30 minutes

480 – 60 = 420 minutes = 420 × 60 seconds = 25200 seconds
Takt Time = Available production time = 25200 seconds = 60 seconds/piece
Total Daily Demand 420 parts required
2.Continous Flow Production
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Producing and moving one item at a time (or a
small and consistent batch of items) through a
series of processing steps as continuously as
possible
It is also called the one-piece flow, single-piece
flow, and make one/move one.

Continuous flow is the most efficient way of
production – no wasting of resources or piling up of
WIP.
Batch Vs Continuous Flow
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Batch Vs Continuous Flow
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3.Pull Production
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Each step makes just what is requested by
the next step.

Produce only what’s needed by the customer!
Push Vs Pull System
 A schedule is prepared in advance for a series
of work stations and each workstation pushes its
completed work to the next station regardless
of whether resources are available
Push System - schedule-based systems.
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A Typical Push System
Material
Information
WS : Workstation
WS1 WS2 WS3
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Pull System
Workers go back to the previous stations
and take only the parts or materials they
need and can process immediately

In other words production is pulled by the
customer or material is pulled by the
workstation just as it is needed
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A Typical Pull System
Material
Information( Via Kanban/Card)
WS1
WS2
WS3
WS :
Workstation
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Kanban
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Kanban is a visual sign or signal that conveys a set
of instructions to either withdraw parts or to produce a
given product


May be a card, flag, verbal signal
TYPES
 Withdrawal Kanban
 Instruction Kanban
Kanban
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Jidoka
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Jidoka means Autonomation = Automation with “human
intelligence”
Sakichi Toyoda ,founder of Toyota Group of companies
invented the concept of Jidoka in the early 20
th
century
Eventually this simple concept found its way into every
machine, every production line and every toyota operation
Quality at Source
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Doing it right at the first time.
 Jidoka allows workers to stop Production lien
 Andon lights signal quality problems
 Visual control makes problems visible
 Poka-Yoke prevents defects
Poka-Yoke Example
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Visual Management
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ANDON LAMP
Red –Line Stoppage

Yellow-Call for Help

Green –Normal Operation
Heijunka-Level Production
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A-Leveling the Production by Volume (quantity); by producing
small Lot Size leads to

Heijunka-Level Production
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B-Leveling the Production by mix (type); means that required
production quantity ratio for all types is manufactured in series

Small Versus Large Batches
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Standard Work
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When manpower, equipment and materials are used in the most
efficient combination, this is called Standard Work
1) Takt Time
2) Work Sequence
Once a Standard Work is set, performance is measured and
continuously improved
Standard Operating Routine for a
Worker
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Manufacturing Cell
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U-shaped cells are preferred
It minimizes operator move times and number of
operators required
It facilitates workload balancing under demand
fluctuations
Cells With Work Routes
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Kaizen
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Change for the Better = Continuous Improvement
Types
Process Kaizen


Flow Kaizen
Kaizen
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Process Kaizen


A Group of kaizen activity commonly lasting five days
,in which a team identifies and implements a significant
improvement in process e.g., creating a manufacturing
cell
Flow Kaizen
Kaizen event is lead by the Value Stream Manager to convert
the Traditional process to lean flow .