CONSTRUCTION SAFETY

AND HEALTH

King Saud University
Engineering College
Civil Engineering
Department
Presented by
Dr. Khalid Al-Dafer
Construction Safety and Health
Outline
CASE STUDY
ACCIDENTS IMPACT
Tools and Techniques
EMERGENCY PROCEDURES
LEGAL RESPONSIBILITIES

LEGAL RESPONSIBILITIES

General
The health and safety responsibilities of all parties on
a construction project are specified in the current
Occupational Health and Safety Act and Regulations
(OSHA) for Construction Projects.

Responsibilities are prescribed in particular for
constructor, employer, supervisor, and worker.
Each party has specific responsibilities to fulfill on a
construction project.


LEGAL RESPONSIBILITIES

Constructor
• Appoint a supervisor if 5 or more workers are on the
project at the same time. Ensure that the project is
supervised at all times.
• A project that lasts more than 3 months and has 20 or
more workers must have a Joint Health and Safety
Committee.
• If a Joint Health and Safety Committee is not required
and there are more than 5 workers, the workers must
select a Health and Safety Representative.

LEGAL RESPONSIBILITIES

Constructor
• Develop written emergency procedures, make sure
your employees know what they are, and post them
on site.
• Ensure ready access to a telephone, two-way radio,
or other system in the event of an emergency.
• Ensure all workers on site are at least 16 years of age.

LEGAL RESPONSIBILITIES

Employer
• Appoint a supervisor if 5 or more of the employer’s
workers are on the project at the same time. Ensure
that they are supervised at all times.
• Provide workers with training as required by law (e.g.,
fall protection systems, WHMIS, etc.).

LEGAL RESPONSIBILITIES

Employer
• Ensure workers are qualified to do work which must
be done only by qualified workers (e.g., electricians,
pipe fitters, etc.).
• Develop written procedures for rescuing a worker
whose fall has been arrested (a worker hanging by a
harness).

LEGAL RESPONSIBILITIES

In all cases of injury, the EMPLOYER must do
the following.
1. Make sure that first aid is given immediately, as
required by law.
2. Record the first aid treatment or advice given to the
worker.
3. Provide immediate transportation to a hospital or a
physician's office, if necessary.


LEGAL RESPONSIBILITIES

In all cases of injury, the EMPLOYER must do
the following.
4. Submit to the Workplace Safety and Insurance
Board, within three days of learning of an accident.
5. Pay full wages and benefits for the day or shift on
which the injury occurred when compensation is
payable for loss of earnings.
6. Notify the Ministry of Labour, health and safety
representative and/or committee, and union as required
by legislation.

LEGAL RESPONSIBILITIES

Supervisor
use the methods, procedures, and equipment required
by the OSHA and Regulations for Construction
Projects.
use or wear the equipment or clothing that the
employer requires

LEGAL RESPONSIBILITIES

Supervisor
• tell workers about actual or potential dangers
• give workers written instructions when required
• take every precaution reasonable to protect
workers.

LEGAL RESPONSIBILITIES

Worker
• Select worker representatives for the Joint
Health and Safety Committee.
• Tell your supervisor or employer about
equipment problems or other hazards that could
hurt you or other workers.
• You have the right to refuse work that you
believe endangers your health or safety — or the
health or safety of others.

LEGAL RESPONSIBILITIES

Worker
• Follow your employer’s instructions to use or
wear equipment, protective devices, or clothing.
• Never engage in horseplay on site (pranks,
competitions, showing off your strength,
roughhousing, or unnecessary running).

LEGAL RESPONSIBILITIES

In all cases of injury, the WORKER must do the
following.
1. Promptly obtain first aid.
2. Notify the employer, foreman, supervisor, and
worker safety representative immediately of an injury
requiring health care.

EMERGENCY PROCEDURES

TAKE COMMAND
Assign duties to specific personnel.
PROVIDE PROTECTION
Protect the accident scene from
continuing or further hazards - for
instance, traffic, operating machinery, fire
or live wires.

EMERGENCY PROCEDURES

GIVE FIRST AID
Give first aid to the injured as soon as
possible.
CALL AN AMBULANCE
Call an ambulance and any other emergency
services required.

EMERGENCY PROCEDURES

GUIDE THE AMBULANCE
Meet and direct the ambulance to the
accident scene.
GET NAME OF HOSPITAL
For follow-up, find out where the injured is
being taken.

EMERGENCY PROCEDURES

ADVISE MANAGEMENT
Inform senior management. They can then
contact relatives, notify authorities, and start
procedures for reporting and investigating the
accident.
ISOLATE THE ACCIDENT SCENE
Barricade, rope off or post a guard at the
scene to make sure that nothing is moved or
changed until authorities have completed their
investigation.

Tools and Techniques

HAND TOOLS
Injuries with hand tools are not often serious but
they do involve lost time.
Common causes include:
using the wrong tool,
using the right tool improperly,
haste,
and lack of training or experience.

Tools and Techniques

POWER TOOLS — DRILLS
Safety Basics:
• Make sure that electric tools are properly
grounded or double-insulated.

• Never remove or tamper with safety devices.

• Study the manufacturer's instructions before
operating any new or unfamiliar electric tool.

• Before making adjustments or changing
attachments, always disconnect the tool from the
power source.

Tools and Techniques

POWER TOOLS — DRILLS
Safety Basics:
• When operating electric tools, always wear eye
protection.

• When operating tools in confined spaces or for
prolonged periods, wear hearing protection.

• Make sure that the tool is held firmly and the
material properly secured before turning on the
tool.

Tools and Techniques

POWER TOOLS — SAWS
Basic Saw Safety:
• Wear protective clothing and equipment. Eye
protection is essential.

• Where saws are used in confined spaces or for
prolonged periods, wear hearing protection.

• Where ventilation is inadequate, wear a dust
mask for protection against dust. Over time,
exposure to dust from particle board and other
materials may cause respiratory problems.

Tools and Techniques

POWER TOOLS — SAWS
Basic Saw Safety:
• With electric saws operated outdoors or in wet
locations, you must use a ground fault circuit
interrupter.

• Never wear loose clothing, neck chains,
scarves, or anything else that can get caught in
the saw.

• Leave safety devices in place and intact on the
saw. Never remove, modify, or defeat guards.
Keep your free hand away from blade.

Tools and Techniques

POWER TOOLS — AIR
Air-powered tools include jackhammers, chipping
hammers, drills, grinders, ... etc.

Safety Basics:
• Run combustion engines outside to prevent the build-
up of carbon monoxide gas.
• Occasionally workers suffer eye injuries when
compressed air is used to blow out formwork. Wear
safety goggles and respiratory protection.


Tools and Techniques

POWER TOOLS — AIR
Safety Basics:
• Always secure hose connections with wire or safety
clips to prevent the hose from whipping except when
automatic cut-off couplers are used.

• Make sure hoses are clear of traffic and pose no
tripping hazards.

• Replace worn-out absorption pads and springs.

• Some tools have a high decibel rating – for instance,
jack hammers and impact drills. To prevent hearing
loss, always wear hearing protection.

Tools and Techniques

POWER TOOLS — AIR
Safety Basics:
• Never tamper with safety devices.

• Never use air to blow dust or dirt out of work clothes.
Compressed air can enter the skin and bloodstream
with deadly results.

• Turn off the pressure to hoses when the system is
not in use.

• Turn off the air pressure when changing pneumatic
tools or attachments.

Tools and Techniques

WELDING AND CUTTING
Safety Basics:
• Obtain a hot work permit through the safety officer if
required.

• Keep welding area free of flammable and explosive
material.

• Provide fire barriers such as metal sheets or fire
blankets and fill cracks or crevices in floors to prevent
sparks and slag from passing through.

Tools and Techniques

WELDING AND CUTTING
Safety Basics:

• Provide fire extinguishers suitable for potential types
of fire. Know where the extinguishers are and how to
use them.

• Provide a firewatch where necessary — a worker to
watch for fires as the welder works and for at least
thirty minutes afterward. The person must be fully
trained in the location of fire alarms and the use of fire-
fighting equipment. Some situations may require more
than one firewatch.

ACCIDENTS IMPACT

Examples
1. Time lost from work by injured employee.
2. Lost time by fellow employees.
3. Loss of efficiency due to break-up of crew.
4. Lost time by supervisor.
5. Training costs for new/replacement workers.
6. Damage to tools and equipment.
7. Time damaged equipment is out of service.

ACCIDENTS IMPACT

Examples

8. Loss of production for remainder of the day.
9. Damage from accident: fire, water, chemical,
explosives, etc.
10. Failure to fill orders/meet deadlines.
11. Overhead costs while work was disrupted.
12. Other miscellaneous costs
13. Others?

CASE STUDY

MILLER PARK STADIUM
J uly 1999 crane collapse
caused the deaths of 3
construction workers.

CASE STUDY

ACCEDENT RESULTS
- Delayed the opening for One Year

- 100 Million in repairs.

- Three construction workers killed, several others
injured

- On Dec. 1, 2000, a Milwaukee County jury awarded
$94 million in punitive damages and $5.25 million in
compensatory damages to the families of three
ironworkers killed in the accident. Although the families
have been paid $27 million for their loss, the issue of
the large punitive damage award is under appeal.