Electrical Energy
Ar.Anuj Seth
• All matter is made up of atoms.
• Centre of each atom is a heavy nucleus.
• Surrounding the nucleus is a lot of empty
space and tiny particles called electrons
(which are constantly moving around the
• Each electron carries a negative electric

Hydrogen Atom
• Inside the nucleus are two different types of
particles – protons and neutrons.
• Protons are much heavier than electrons and
they carry a positive electric charge.
• Neutrons have a similar mass to protons but
carry no electric charge.
• The positive electric charge of a proton exactly
balances the negative charge of an electron.
Atoms contain an equal number of electrons and

• Any particle or substance that has more
protons than electrons is said to be positively
• More electrons than protons is said to be
negatively charged.
• Equal amounts of positive and negative charge
is said to be neutral.

Helium Atom
Static Electricity
• Is the build up of electric charge on a surface.
• Commonly occurs because of two surfaces
rubbing against each other.
• The electrons are rubbed off one surface –
charging is positive – and are transferred to
the other surface –
charging it negative.
Current Electricity
• Power from batteries and power points is
made up of electrons moving along a wire –
electric current.
• The energy from the moving electrons is
transformed into other forms of energy such
as heat and movement.

Measuring Electricity
• Electric Current – when charge flows
(measured using a ammeter).
• Unit used to measure current is ampere/amps
• Voltage – measure of the amount of energy
supplied and used by the charges.
• Unit used to measure voltage is volts (V).
• Supply Voltage – Australia 240V
• Some household items use transformers.
• A step-down transformer reduces 240V to the
amount required by an appliance.
• Portable electrical energy.
• Wet Cell – two electrodes placed in a liquid
electrolyte i.e. conducts electricity.
• Dry Cell – used in torches, toys etc. don’t leak
because they use paste instead of liquid.
• Photovoltaic Cells – solar cell.
• Resistance – when electrons pass along wires
their path is restricted by the atoms that make
up the wires.
• A measure of how difficult it is for an electric
current to flow.

Conductors and insulators
• Conductors - materials with little resistance to
the flow of electric charge (e.g. plastic coated
copper wires used in most electric circuits =
excellent conductors).
• Little energy is needed for electric charge to
flow through conductors.
• Most metals are very good conductors of

• Insulators - materials with a lot of resistance
to the flow of electric charge

• Allow very little or no electric current through
e.g. air, rubber and plastic.

Circuit Diagrams
• Circuit diagrams are universal so they can be
used all over the world.

Series Circuit
• A string of Christmas tree lights are all
connected to the same power supply.
• If you remove a single light the rest of the
lights will go off.
• This is because the lights are connected in

Parallel Circuit
• The ceiling lights in most homes need to be
connected together so that if one light globe
or tube stops working, the others remain on –
this requires a parallel circuit.