Anatomical subdivisions of NS

Made up of neurons
and neuroglia cells
Functional Overview of NS
CNS
 Integration,
processing and
coordination of
sensory data and
motor commands
 Higher functions

PNS
1. Sensory or afferent division
with sensory neurons.
Brings sensory info to CNS.
Begins as receptors, ends
in?
2. Motor or efferent division
with motor neurons.
Brings motor commands to
peripheral tissue.
Ends at effector cells.

Peripheral Nervous System
Cellular Organization of Neural Tissue
Two cell types:
1. Neurons
2. Neuroglia
 Schwann cells
 Satellite cells
 Astrocytes
 Oligodendrocytes
 Microglial cells
 Ependymal cells

See fig. 13-5
Compare to fig. 14-4
General Neuron Structure
 Cell body or Soma with Perikaryon
 Dendrites
 Axon with axon hillock
 Synaptic terminals
Astrocytes: largest & most numerous

Function: BBB
structural framework & repairs
regulation of ions, nutrients, gases
Oligodendrocyte
Smaller than astrocyte
Produce myelin in CNS (white matter vs. gray matter!)
Myelin = ?
Microglia cells
 Smallest
 Phagocytosis of ?
  # during infection
or injury
Ependymal
cells
Lining of ventricles & central canal
Some regions ciliated
Some specialized to produce CSF
Schwann Cells
and Peripheral Axons
myelinated
Responsible for
myelination, but
surround all peripheral
axons!
Involved in repair
mechanism after injury
Wallerian Degeneration
Structural Neuron Classification

Anaxonic
In CNS
Unipolar
Also called
pseudounipolar
Sensory neurons

Axon hillock
See fig. 13-10
Structural Neuron Classification cont. . .
Bipolar
Unmyelinated
Rare, but important
in special senses
Multipolar
Most common
All motor neurons


Functional Neuron Classification
1) somatic vs.
visceral sensory
or afferent
monitoring of ?
2) somatic vs.
visceral motor
or efferent
carry instructions to ?
3) Inter- or
association neurons

Synapse
Site of communication between two nerve
cells or nerve cell and effector cell
neuro-effector junctions
(example?)

Electrical vs.
chemical synapses
Anatomical Organizatin of NS
Collections of cell bodies - ganglion in PNS, center or
nucleus in CNS
Bundles of axons - tracts in CNS, nerves in PNS
“White” = myelinated axons, both nerves and tracts
“Gray” = non-myelinated material, dendrites,
synapses and cell bodies as well as nonmyelinated
axons. In CNS – nucleus; in PNS - ganglia
Compare to fig. 13-15