Collaborative Learning
 Collaborative learning is not just a classroom technique. In
learning situations where pupils come together in groups ,
it suggests a way of dealing with pupils which respects and
highlights individual group members abilities and group
members abilities and contributions . Collaborative learning
involves the development of collaborative communities
,where groups or pairs of learners and solve authentic
problems ,fosters constructive learning
Collaborative learning advocates distrust structure
and allow students more in forming friend ship and interest
groups .students talk is stressed as a means for working things
out .interaction with peers and teachers supports questions
refinement and reflection ,promotes a shared discourse ,and
established a learner culture ,which fosters co-operation and
mutual interdependence .

Principles of collaborative
 working together results in a greater
understanding than would likely have
occurred if one had worked independently .
 spoken and written interactions contribute to
this increased understanding .
 opportunity exists to become aware ,through
classroom experiences ,of relation ships
between social interactions and increased
understanding .
 some elements of this increased
understanding are unpredictable.
 Participation is voluntary and must be freely
entered into

Collaborative learning ties into the social
constructivist movement ,asserting that
both knowledge and authority of
knowledge have changed .in ideal
collaborative environment ,the authority for
testing and determining appropriateness
of the group product rest with ,first ,the
small group, second, the plenary group
and finally the requisite knowledge
 Collaborative learning puts students together to work in
heterogeneous groups .all perspectives of all learners
are utilized for enrich learning, all are seen as equal
contributors , collaborating to achieve a mutual goal .
collaborating consultation encourages shared
responsibility in planning and decision making .
 Collaborative learning then ,may encompass any
number of group learning methods , emphasizing
constructive efforts between and among students,
teachers ,researchers , parents . both in and out side of
the classroom setting the group learning process should
involve a common inquiry process ,active participation
in learning and the understanding that the creation of
knowledge is inherently social .actual group size vary
and groups change in composition depending on the
complexity of needs.

Characteristics of
collaborative learning
 Based on cognitive or social constructivism
 Learner with instinctive capacities
 Emphasizes cognition
 Opportunities for interaction among students
 Emphasizes dialogue in learning
 Considers the role of society and culture in the
development of learner
 Emphasizes on self evaluation and peer evaluation
 Teacher act as mediator opportunities for self
learning , self regulated learning

 Teacher only scaffolds
 Design experiences for learners zone of proximal
 Considers learner as knowledgeable , self
determined and strategic
 Flexible class room structure
 Sharing of knowledge between the teacher and
 Emphasize on acquisition of content and process
of learning for all learners
co-operative learning is very similar to collaborating
learning except that it introduces to a more
structured setting with the teacher in total control of
the learning environment . Collaboration is a
philosophical of interaction and personal life style
whereas co-operation is a structure of interaction
designed to facilitate the accomplishment of an
end product or goal . The key difference between
them is the level of contribution expected of each
member of group . Co-operative learning is defined
as “instructional methods and techniques in which
pupils working small groups and are rewarded in
some way for the performance as a group
Characteristics of co-operative
 uses small groups of four or five students
 Focuses on tasks to be accomplished
 Requires group co-operation and

 Mandates individuals responsibilities to learn
 Support division of labor .

Benefits of co-operative
 improvement of comprehension of basic
academic content
 Reinforcement of academic skills
 Students decision making allowed
 Creation active learning environment
 Boosted students self esteem
 Celebration of diverse learning styles
 Promotion of students responsibility
 Focus of success of every one

Features of co-operative
 Positive interdependences
 Face-to- face-interaction
 Individual accountability
 Inter personal and small group skills
 Group evaluation

In co-operative learning classrooms
.students work together to ensure the
success each students . positive
interdependence is a management system
that encourages students to work together
And teaches students that school life for
each one of them is enhanced when every
one succeeds
Positive Interdependence
In co-operative learning situations, students
interact, assistant one another with learning
task and promote another success . the
small group setting allow students to work
directly with one another to share ideas
and opinions , to come to common
understanding and work as team
Individual accountability
In co-operative learning setting , each
student is held accountable for his/her own
academic progress and task completion
Inter personal and small group
Co-operative learning offers students a
chance to develop the inter personal skills
needed to succeed at school , work and
within the community .primary among this
skills are effective communication
understanding and appreciation of others ,
decision among , problem solving , conflicts
resolution and compermise.
Group evaluation
Groups of students need to evaluate and
discuss how well they are meeting there
goal , what action help there group and
what action seem to hurt group
Co-operative learning
depending on following
 Teacher planning is critical
 Students engagement is mandatory
 Quality work is essential
 Constant student monitoring is required
 Assessment is vital
 Time requirements must be established
 Trust , cohesiveness and responsibility must
be promoted
Jigsaw learning ensures active individual participation
and group co-operation by arranging learning tasks .
each member in the group possesses unique information
and thus plays a unique information and thus plays a
unique role .the group product cannot be completed
unless each piece is included.
In jigsaw learning the whole learning the whole learning
task is cut into pieces or jigsaw , that when filled together
recreate the totality .small groups with 5-6 students are set
up .each group member is assigned some unique learning
task and then to his base group members .each
rearranged group contains an expert . Jigsaw involves
pupils researching information in groups and then
reporting this back in individually. This requires
individuals comprehension of new material informed
discussions and working collaborating with team members
.jigsaw learning promotes co-operation than competitions