Ch 20: The Blood

Discuss the composition of blood including the
functions of the various components
Explain the anatomy and functions of the red blood cells,
including a description of blood typing
Discuss the types of white blood cells found in the blood
and give the functions of each
Give a brief accounting of the platelets
Review hemopoiesis, including RBC and
leukocyte formation
Functions of Blood
 Distribution - nutrients, wastes,
hormones, gases, etc.
 Self-sealing – hemostasis
 Disease/ infection fighting
Blood = connective tissue
extracellular
matrix:
Plasma
specialized cells:
(= Formed elements)
RBCs
WBCs
Platelets
color ?
volume ?
Plasma Composition
 Water 92%
 Plasma proteins 7%
 Other solutes 1%
Transports organic and
inorganic molecules,
formed elements, and heat
Plasma Proteins
 Albumin (60%) Major contributor to osmotic
concentration of plasma. Transport of lipids
and steroid hormones
 Globulins (35%) Transport ions, hormones,
lipids; immune function
 Fibrinogen (4%) Essential component of
clotting system (conversion to insoluble
fibrin)
 Regulatory proteins (< 1%) ????
Other Solutes
 Electrolytes: Normal extracellular
fluid ion composition (????)
 Organic nutrients: glucose, FA,
AA
 Organic wastes: urea, bilirubin
Difference between Plasma and Interstitial Fluid :
Plasma has more:
 Dissolved O
2
O
2
diffuses out into tissue
 Dissolved proteins (too big to cross caps.)
 Albumins
 Globulins
  globulins
  and  globulins
 Fibrinogen
Similar concentration: Salts & small molecules
serum = plasma -
Difference between
plasma and serum?
. . . . 2 more things:
Most plasma proteins are made in
liver. Exception: ?
Lipoproteins = particles containing
lipids (cholesterol & triglycerids) and
proteins (albumins & globulins)
Formed Elements
Red and White
Blood Cells
Platelets

 Platelets
 WBCs
 RBCs
.1%
99.9%
Formed Elements cont.
Why white blood cells???
RBCs = Erythrocytes
Measured by hematocrit or PCV
Most abundant blood cell: 1000
RBCs/1 WBC
Contain hemoglobin, carry O2
Very regular shape - biconcave discs
Anucleate: Lifespan ~ 120 days
replacement rate ~ 3 mio RBCs / sec
Hemopoiesis = Blood Cell Formation
Hemocytoblasts: One type of stem cell for all blood cells
In red bone marrow
. . . then differentiation
into 4 types of
progenitor stem cells:
Erythroblast
Myeloblast
Monoblast
Lymphoblast

Fig 20.8