# -

A force that opposes
motion
-
Acts parallel to the
surfaces in contact.
Friction is Everywhere!!!
walking
tires
brakes
sand on icy streets
OBJECTIVES: AFTER COMPLETING THIS
MODULE, YOU SHOULD BE ABLE TO:

Defne and calculate the coefcients of kinetic and static
friction, and give the relationship of friction to the normal force.

Apply the concepts of static and kinetic friction to problems
involving constant motion or impending motion.

Defne and calculate the coefcients of kinetic and static
friction, and give the relationship of friction to the normal force.

Apply the concepts of static and kinetic friction to problems
involving constant motion or impending motion.
KEY TERMS

Friction

Static friction

Sliding friction

Rolling friction

Fluid friction
WHAT ARE THE CAUSES OF FRICTION?

The strength of the force of friction depends on two factors: how
hard the surfaces push together and the types of surfaces
involved.

Smooth surfaces have less friction; bumpy surfaces have more

Friction acts in a direction opposite to the direction of the object’s
motion
Friction Force vs. Weight
W
F
f
Cause of Friction:
The microscopic roughness
between surfaces…like two
gears locking together.
FRICTION FORCES
When two surfaces are in contact, friction forces oppose relative motion or
impending motion.
P
Friction forces are parallel to the surfaces in
contact and oppose motion or impending
motion.
Static Friction: No relative
motion.
Kinetic Friction: Relative
motion.
If it is not moving, then there is no
friction until an applied force acts on the
object! What if it is moving?
Friction can also cause heat!
F F
f
WHAT IS STATIC FRICTION?

Friction that acts on objects that are not
moving ,because of static friction, you must
use more force to start the motion of stationary
objects

Once you start an object moving there is no
longer static friction
WHAT IS SLIDING FRICTION

Occurs when two solid surfaces slide over each other.

Ballet dancers applying resin to ballet slippers so they
don’t slip

Bicycle brakes

WHAT IS ROLLING FRICTION

Occurs when an object rolls across a surface.

Easier to overcome than sliding friction for similar
materials.

Ball bearings are in moving objects such as skates,
skateboards, and bicycles.

Ball bearings reduce friction by rolling between moving
parts.
WHAT IS FLUID FRICTION

Occurs when solid objects move through a fuid

Easier to overcome than sliding friction

Reason why moving parts are often
bathed in oil or other lubricants ?

Fluid friction occurs between a bicyclist and the air.
Bicyclists often wear streamlined helmets and clothes
2 N
FRICTION AND THE NORMAL
FORCE
4 N
The force required to overcome static or kinetic friction is proportional to
the normal force, n.
f
k
= µ
k
n
f
k
= µ
k
n
f
s
= µ
s
n
f
s
= µ
s
n
n
12 N
6 N
n
8 N
4 N
n
FRICTION FORCES ARE
INDEPENDENT OF AREA.
4 N
4 N
If the total mass pulled is constant, the same force (4 N) is required to
overcome friction even with twice the area of contact.
For this to be true, it is essential that ALL other variables be
rigidly controlled.
FRICTION FORCES ARE INDEPENDENT OF
TEMPERATURE, PROVIDED NO CHEMICAL OR
STRUCTURAL VARIATIONS OCCUR.
4 N 4 N
Heat can sometimes cause surfaces to become
deformed or sticky. In such cases, temperature can
be a factor.
FRICTION FORCES ARE INDEPENDENT OF
SPEED.
2 N 2 N
The force of kinetic friction is the same at 5 m/s as it is for 20
m/s. Again, we must assume that there are no chemical or
mechanical changes due to speed.
5 m/s 20 m/s
THE STATIC FRICTION FORCE
In this module, when we use the following equation, we refer
only to the maximum value of static friction and simply write:
f
s
= µ
s
n
f
s
= µ
s
n
When an attempt is made to move an object on a surface, static
friction slowly increases to a MAXIMUM value.
n
f
s
P
W
s s
f n µ ≤
CONSTANT OR IMPENDING
MOTION
For motion that is impending and for motion at constant speed,
the resultant force is zero and ΣF = 0. (Equilibrium)
P
f
s
P – f
s
= 0
Rest
P
f
k
P – f
k
= 0
Constant Speed
Here the weight and normal forces are balanced and do not affect
motion.
FRICTION AND ACCELERATION
When P is greater than the maximum f
s
the resultant force produces
acceleration.
Note that the kinetic friction force remains constant even as
the velocity increases.
P
f
k
Constant Speed
This case will be discussed
in a later chapter.
f
k
= µ
k
n
a
EXAMPLE 1: IF Μ
K
= 0.3 AND Μ
S
= 0.5, WHAT
HORIZONTAL PULL P IS REQUIRED TO JUST START A
250-N BLOCK MOVING?
1. Draw sketch and free-
body diagram as
shown.
2. List givens and label
what is to be found:
µ
k
= 0.3; µ
s
= 0.5; W = 250 N
Find: P = ? to just start
3. Recognize for impending motion: P – f
s
= 0
n
f
s
P
W
+
EXAMPLE 1(CONT.): Μ
S
= 0.5, W = 250 N. FIND P TO
OVERCOME F
S
(MAX). STATIC FRICTION APPLIES.
4. To nd ! we need to
know f
s
" which is:
5. To fnd n:
n
f
s
P
250 N
+
For this case: P – f
s
= 0
f
s
= µ
s
n n = ?
ΣF
y
= 0
n – W = 0
W = 250 N n = 250 N
(Continued)
EXAMPLE 1(CONT.): Μ
S
= 0.5, W = 250 N. FIND P TO OVERCOME F
S
(MAX). NOW WE KNOW N = 250 N.
7. For this case: P – f
s
= 0
6. Next we fnd f
s
from:
f
s
= µ
s
n = 0.5 (250 N)
P = f
s
= 0.5 (250 N)
P = 125 N
P = 125 N
This force (125 N) is needed to just start motion.
Next we consider P needed for constant speed.
n
f
s
P
250
N
+
µ
s
= 0.5
EXAMPLE 1(CONT.): IF Μ
K
= 0.3 AND Μ
S
= 0.5, WHAT
HORIZONTAL PULL P IS REQUIRED TO MOVE WITH
CONSTANT SPEED? (OVERCOMING KINETIC FRICTION)
ΣF
y
= ma
y
= 0
n - W = 0 n = W
Now: f
k
= µ
k
n = µ
k
W
ΣF
x
= 0; P - f
k
= 0
P = f
k
= µ
k
W
P = (0.3)(250 N)
P = 75.0 N
P = 75.0 N
f
k
n
P
mg
+
µ
k
= 0.3
THE NORMAL FORCE AND WEIGHT
The normal force is NOT always equal to the weight. The
following are examples:
30
0
P
m
n
W
Here the normal force is less than
weight due to upward component of
P.
θ
P
n
W
Here the normal force is equal to
only the compo- nent of weight
perpendi- cular to the plane.
REVIEW OF FREE-BODY DIAGRAMS:

For Friction Problems:

Read problem; draw and label sketch.

Construct force diagram for each object, vectors at origin of x,y
axes. Choose x or y axis along motion or impending motion.

Dot in rectangles and label x and y compo-nents opposite and

Label all components; choose positive direction.

For Friction Problems:

Read problem; draw and label sketch.

Construct force diagram for each object, vectors at origin of x,y
axes. Choose x or y axis along motion or impending motion.

Dot in rectangles and label x and y compo-nents opposite and

Label all components; choose positive direction.
FOR FRICTION IN EQUILIBRIUM:

Draw free-body diagram for each body.

Choose x or y-axis along motion or impending motion
and choose direction of motion as positive.

Identify the normal force and write one of following:

f
s
= µ
s
n or f
k
= µ
k
n

For equilibrium, we write for each axis:

ΣF
x
= 0 ΣF
y
= 0

Solve for unknown quantities.

Draw free-body diagram for each body.

Choose x or y-axis along motion or impending motion
and choose direction of motion as positive.

Identify the normal force and write one of following:

f
s
= µ
s
n or f
k
= µ
k
n

For equilibrium, we write for each axis:

ΣF
x
= 0 ΣF
y
= 0

Solve for unknown quantities.
m
EXAMPLE 2. A FORCE OF 60 N DRAGS A 300-N BLOCK BY
A ROPE AT AN ANGLE OF 40
0
ABOVE THE HORIZONTAL
SURFACE. IF U
K
= 0.2, WHAT FORCE P WILL PRODUCE
CONSTANT SPEED?
1. Draw and label a
sketch of the
#roblem.
40
0
P = ?
f
k n
W = 300 N
2. Draw free-body
diagram.
The force P is to be
replaced by its com-
ponents P
x
and P
y
.
40
0
P
W
n
f
k
+
W
P
x
P cos 40
0
P
y
P
y
P sin 40
0
EXAMPLE 2 (CONT.). P = ?; W = 300 N; U
K
=
0.2.
\$. %ind com#onents
of !:
40
0
P
mg
n
f
k
+
P cos 40
0
P sin 40
0
P
x
= P cos 40
0
= 0.766P
P
y
= P sin 40
0
= 0.643P
P
x
= 0.766P; P
y
= 0.643P
Note: Vertical forces are balanced, and for constant speed,
horizontal forces are balanced.
0
x
F =

0
y
F =

EXAMPLE 2 (CONT.). P = ?; W = 300 N; U
K
=
0.2.
4. &##ly '(uilibrium
con- ditions to
vertical a)is.
40
0
P
300 N
n
f
k
+
0.766P
0.643P
ΣF
y
= 0
ΣF
y
= 0
P
x
= 0.766P
P
y
= 0.643P
n + 0.643P – 300 N= 0
[P
y
and n are up (+)]
n = 300 N – 0.643P ;
n = 300 N – 0.643P
n = 300 N – 0.643P
Solve for n in terms of P
EXAMPLE 2 (CONT.). P = ?; W = 300 N; U
K
=
0.2.
*. &##ly Σ%
)
+ 0 to con-
stant horizontal
motion.
ΣF
x
= 0.766P – f
k
= 0
ΣF
x
= 0.766P – f
k
= 0
f
k
= µ
k
n = (0.2)(300 N - 0.643P)
0.766P – f
k
= 0;
40
0
P
300 N
n
f
k
+
0.766P
0.643P
n = 300 N – 0.643P
n = 300 N – 0.643P
0.766P – (60 N – 0.129P) = 0
0.766P – (60 N – 0.129P) = 0
f
k
= (0.2)(300 N - 0.643P) = 60 N – 0.129P
EXAMPLE 2 (CONT.). P = ?; W = 300 N; U
K
=
0.2.
40
0
P
300
N
n
f
k
+
0.766P
0.643P
0.766P – (60 N – 0.129P )=0
0.766P – (60 N – 0.129P )=0
6. Solve for unknown P.
0.766P – 60 N + 0.129P =0
0.766P + 0.129P = 60 N
If P = 67 N, the block will be
dragged at a constant speed.
P = 67.0 N
0.766P + 0.129P = 60 N
0.895P = 60 N
P = 67.0 N
x
y
EXAMPLE 3: WHAT PUSH P UP THE INCLINE IS NEEDED TO
MOVE A 230-N BLOCK UP THE INCLINE AT CONSTANT SPEED
IF Μ
K
= 0.3?
6
0
0
Step 1: Draw free-body
including forces, angles
and components.
P
230 N
f
k
n
60
0
W cos 60
0
W sin 60
0
Step 2: ΣF
y
= 0
n – W cos 60
0
= 0
n = (230 N) cos 60
0

n = 115 N
n = 115 N
W =230 N
P
EXAMPLE 3 (CONT.): FIND P TO GIVE
MOVE UP THE INCLINE (W = 230 N).
Step 3. Apply ΣF
x
= 0
x
y
P
W
f
k
n
60
0
W cos 60
0
W sin 60
0
n = 115 N
W = 230 N
P - f
k
- W sin 60
0
= 0
f
k
= µ
k
n = 0.2(115 N)
f
k
= 23 N, P = ?
P - 23 N - (230 N)sin 60
0
= 0
P - 23 N - 199 N= 0
P = 222 N
P = 222 N
SUMMARY: IMPORTANT POINTS TO
CONSIDER WHEN SOLVING FRICTION
PROBLEMS.

The maximum force of static
friction is the force required to
just start motion.
n
f
s
P
W
Equilibrium exists at that instant:
s s
f n µ ≤
0; 0
x y
F F Σ = Σ =
SUMMARY: IMPORTANT POINTS
(CONT.)

The force of kinetic friction is that
force required to maintain
constant motion.

Equilibrium exists if speed is
constant, but f
k
does not get
larger as the speed is increased.
n
f
k
P
W
k k
f n µ =
0; 0
x y
F F Σ = Σ =
SUMMARY: IMPORTANT POINTS
(CONT.)

Choose an ) or y-axis along the
direction of motion or impending
motion.
f
k
n
P
W
+
µ
k
= 0.3
The Σ F will be zero
along the x-axis and
along the y-axis.
In this fgure, we have:
0; 0
x y
F F Σ = Σ =
SUMMARY: IMPORTANT POINTS
(CONT.)

emember the normal force n is
not al!a"s equal to the !eight of an
object.
It is necessary to draw the free-body
diagram and sum forces to solve for
the correct n value.
30
0
P
m
n
W
θ
P
n
W
0; 0
x y
F F Σ = Σ =
SUMMARY
Static Friction: No relative
motion.
Kinetic Friction: Relative motion.
f
k
= µ
k
n
f
k
= µ
k
n
f
s
≤ µ
s
n
f
s
≤ µ
s
n
Procedure for solution of equilibrium problems is the same for
each case:
0 0
x y
F F Σ = Σ =
CONCLUSION:
FRICTION AND EQUILIBRIUM