[overview of the presentation

Urbanisation in Russia
Geographical features
The Trans Siberian steppe
Upto 1250 AD
500BC_burgwall >Gorod >Gard>Grad Trade routes_Khazar_620-1050AD
Baltic to Baghdad
Slavs(700-850) Decline of Khazar Early Rus_9
Upto 1250 AD
Trade along Dneiper and surrounding

Byzantine culture

Russian Orthodox Church (eastern
Orthodoxy) – baptism of Kiev inhabitants
and Church – state, liturgy, revenue

Economy, architecture, literature as
compared to surrounding regions – Greek,
Latin influence

Slavs move towards northern forested

Upto 1250 AD
Mongol invasion_1223-40 Novgorod New cities_Tver, Nizhny, Moscow
Sarai, Mongol capital
Turkic population of Volga Bulgaria convert to Islam – trade with
Middle East and Central Asia

Tatars tribute- threat from the Baltic

Fiscal system, military organisation, census, transportation and
postal road network
Daniel Aleksandrovish > Moscow – central
riverine system, secured by forests and marshes

Major factor in ascendancy of Moscow –
cooperation of rulers with Mongol overlords - title
of Grand Prince of Moscow as agents for
collecting Tatar tribute from Russian

Principality enhanced with Russian Orthodox
Church (established by Metropolitan) based out
of Moscow – titular under Kiev

1380- Grand Princes rise against Mongol Yoke
cent Ivan III – foundation for Russian state

Expansion – Novgorod, Tver, Dneiper and Oka
river basins – tripled the size

Moscow – as „new Rome‟

Absolute sovereignity of Russian provinces,
refusal to pay Tatars- defeat of the Mongol horde

Great Abatis Belt – to protect the southern

Manor system for cavalry based army

Rulers of Moscow_ territory as collective property

Centralised control over local rulers

Anti-Catholicism – curtain between Russia and
western Europe

Increasing autocracy > Tsar
Ivan IV (1547-84)

New code of laws (Sudebnik of 1550) [resulted
from 1
Russian parliament of the feudal estates
type – Zemsky Sobor 1549

Curbed the influence of clergy, introduced local
self-management (distribution of taxes) and in
rural areas, participation of elected representatives

Liquidate privilege of aristocracy, strengthened
judicial bodies

Right of serf peasants to leave feudal lords after
the payment of two fixed fees

Failure to gain control of Baltic coast, annexation
of Siberia < migration of nomadic hordes from Asia
to Europe curbed < funded by mercantile

Cossacks – lower river basins – development of
Russia and Ukraine

Post conquests > “multiethinc, multiconfessional

Polish Lithuanian Commonwealth
Swedish empire

Russian famine (1601-03) – social disorganisation, civil war and foreign intrusion,
devastation of cities and depopulation of rural regions < rule of weak Tsars

Polish invasion of 1611, Moscow – volunteer army led by merchant Kuzma Minin
and prince Dmitri Pozharsky

Strength of govt‟s central bureaucracy – service regardless of ruler‟s legitimacy


National assembly of representatives from 50 cities and peasants > Michael Romanov –
a boyar (member of highest rank of feudal order

Bureaucratic centralisation <state service from old and new nobility in military > in return
allowing boyars to enserf peasants

Curtailed peasant rights to move, attached to land along with tax burden

Restricted mobility of craftsmen and tradesmen

Peter (1672-1725)

Russian state from Baltic to Pacific – European
state system, autocratic absolutist state – 14
million population (agri)

Geographic constraints – trade hurdles > „window
to sea‟

1703 – Saint Petersburg – new capital –window
to Europe > Peter, as Tsar and emperor

Boyar council replaced by 9 member senate –
newly divided countryside – tax revenues (tripled)

Administrative Collegia [joined by law] – replaces
old govt depts

Formal listing of positions and ranks – to deal with
hereditary claims to nobility

Orthodox church – administrative tool –
patriarchate replaced by „Holy Synod‟,
autocephalous body, govt official

Continued and intensified requirement of state
service for all nobles

Catherine II (1762)

Resurgence of nobility, Charter to Gentry –
abolishing mandatory state service, legalised the
selling of serfs separate from land

Alexander I(1796)

Economy – Napolean‟s Continental System
(Berlin decree) > Russia‟s capture of Paris – loss
of life

Emergence of Russia as regional power –
inefficiency of the govt, isolation of people,
economic backwardness

Nicholas I (1825-55)

Officers exposure to liberalism of western Europe
> nobility for change > Decembrist Revolt

Statewide ideology as „orthodoxy, autocracy,
nationality” _ as nation brewing into modernity

Army strength, generals on civilian duty - army
as vehicle of upward social mobility; conscription

Weakened defence at time of Crimean War
Direction of growth (1840_W Europe‟s
modernisation) – Slavophiles call for collectivism of

Supply of forces- „Holy Alliance‟, Crimean War
loss to Britain and France – Michael Bakunin

Abolition of Serfdom

Alexander II (1855) – 23 out of 67.1 million serfs

Emancipation of serfs (1861) – 1
liberal reform

Serfs full rights of citizens, to own property and
business (except household serfs); serfs on
imperial property given larger plots

End of landed aristocracy‟s monopoly; property
brought from owners with state assistance – state
bonds to owners and redemption tax of 5% of total
cost of land > land collectively by mir, supervised
the holdings – „pauper‟s allotment‟

Unified judicial system over „estates or realms‟,
local self-govt –Zemstvo; universal military service

Central Asia – raw materials (Trans-Caspian)
Supply of free labour to cities

Landowners‟ say at provincial level as opposed to
autocracy, rise in capitalism – local govt not
responsible for rules of operation of new market

Economic system similar to western europe –
private ownership, free competition, minimal
regulation, hopes for a laissez fair e economy

Uneven application of legislation, significant
changes on holding composition

Alexander III – reactionary, reversal to old maxim,
committed Slavophile – Russification

Nicholas II (1894-1917)

Industrial Revolution- influence in Russia –
overthrow the Tsar

Constitutional Democratic Party (Kadets),-for
social reform and constitutional monarchy;
Socialist Revolutionary Party (Esers)- Narodnik
tradition and Russian Social democratic Laour
Party (RSLDP) –primary exponent of Marxism
(1903_radical Bolsheviks and moderate

Failure at Russo-Japanese War – Revolution of
1905 > October Manifesto > national Duma (legis)

Dissolution of the Duma

Treaty bound to protect Serbia . WW I – repeated
military failures, bureaucratic ineptitude and
external import restrictions

Supplies and wages reduce, inflation, strikes;
1921- internal dissent curbed, despite external
support - consolidation

1890s- industrial development – increasing
middle class > dynamic political atmosphere

State and foreigners owned industry (passive) -
working conditions, wages, taxes and agrarian
disorders > party formations

By 1914, work composition- 40% employees
(1000+) , 42% (100 to 1000) and 18% (100 or less)

Russian Revolution- 1917- begins with women
textile worker‟s strike (8 March)

Alexander Kerensky – October Revolution

Soviet Union

Russian SFSR,, Ukranian SSR, Belarusian SSr
and TranCaucasian SFSR (formation)

Constitution (1924) – federal system < soviets in
villages, factories and cities in larger regions > All
Union Congress of Soviets – controlled by
Communist Party – Politburo from Moscow

„War communism‟- upto 1921 – land, all industry
and small businesses nationalised – money
economy restricted – strong opposition

„New Economic Policy‟- peasants to sell surplus
in market, retail permitted; state responsible for –
banking, transportation, heavy industries, public
utilities – revival

Societal – weaken patriarchal domination of
family, divorce and abortion- legality, impact on
labour market, child care , shift social life to soviet

Incorporation of minorities , atheism, education

Intensified medical services > impacts

Stalin – massive industrialisation; 1
Fiver Year
Plan (1929) – abolition of NEP for swift
accumulation of capital resources through heavy
industry, collectivisation of agriculture and
restricted manufacture of consumer goods (all
economic activity controlled)

State control of farms and Kulaks forced off their
land, bad weather, confiscation of grain > famine

Drove people to cities > accelerated
industrialisation and rapid increase in urban

Plans results in areas apart from agriculture

Purges in other republics to consolidate USSR

Large scale internal exile – labour camps, forced
labour – Siberia

Growth of Germany > Berlin cature (1945)

27 million Soviet deaths, 1710 towns and 70,00
settlements destroyed , slave labour , Leningrad
Cold War

Future of eastern Europe- conflict between
Truman and Stalin (buffer zone) > North Atlantic
Treaty Organisation and Warsaw Pact

1949 – end of US nuclear monopoly ; proxy
conflicts (Korean War and Vietnam War)

Sphere of influence > complex international
relations > check proliferation of nuclear weaponry

Later years

Krushchev, collective leadership under
Brezhenev > economic reform of 1965
(introduction of capitalist methods of management,
increased independence of enterprise, use of
material incentives)

Leading producer and exporter of oil and natural
gas – 1960s

Peak of Russian advancements in science and
industry- intensified efforts at space research

“openness in restructuring Soviet political and
economic system‟ – call for democratisation

Glasnost- transparency in functioning of public
institutions > access to information – social
problems receiving wider attention

1989 – loss of allies in eastern Europe

Low pricing of petroleum and natrual gas, Afghan
war, outdated industry and corruption > planned
economy turned ineffective

Price control > shortage of products in 1991

Yeltin election as chairman of Russian republic,
coup against Gorbachev , disintegration of the
Soviet Union

Only constituent that lacked instruments of
statehood that other republic had (trade union
councils, academy of sciences etc)

CP banned , refusal to adopt market reforms >
food rationing , price control lifted
1992 - present

Cuts in state spending, open foreign trade regime > impact on living standards > hyperinflation

Chaotic legislature („93) – Chechenya wars

WB, IMF – largest and fastest privatisation > enterprises now under old managers

Structural problems in establishing a representative govt- struggle between president and
parliament and anarchic party system

Central govt – no longer control over localities, bureaucracy and economic fiefdoms > collapse of
tax revenue > financial crash of 1998

Putin in 2000- issues in attracting FDI, large capital outflows, shrinking workforce corruption and
underinvestment in infrastructure

2006- growth of 6.7% - consumer demand resource rich base

Central govt > administrative divisions oblasti (regions), minority republics, okruga (autonomous
districts), kraya (territories) federal cities (Moscow and St Petersburg) and the one autonomous

Equal power to administrative divisions in the Federal Assembly

Power of divisions diluted in 200s with 7 federal distrcits established with presidential envoy

District presidential envoys – power to implement federal law and co-ordinate communiction
between President and regional governors.

Regional governments – inadequate tax revenue to support mandates on budgets

2004-President appoints regional governors (elected earlier)

Fedreral districts replace 11 traditional economic regional governments, particularly for statistical

City administrator appointed by regional governor – city councils mayors and administrators replace
city soviets

Global ties
UN, APEC, OSEC, Council of Europe

European Union – Common Spaces (Economic,
Security, Justice and Culture)

BRICS – with India, ties related to energy,
research, and defense

Economic trajectory

EU membership - consolidation