The future is here!!!

History of Networks
 In the olden days, people formed a network in order to
transmit a piece of data from one place to another.
 With the advances in technology a new mode of
networking was developed by using the wires as a
medium (wired networking).
 As time passed the technology increased and we
launched satellites into space and thus were in a
position to transmit enormous amounts of data across
various geographical locations.
 Wireless Networking gained a wide recognition and
became the most popular type of all networks .

General Network Scenario
 Whether you are using a wireless internet in a coffee
shop or mall, competing for bandwidth at a conference
or probably stealing it from the guy next door, you
often get frustrated because of the low speeds you face.
 Also as more and more devices get connected to the
network, clogged airwaves are going to make it.

 A German physicist, Harald Haas, has started working
on transmission of data using visible light back in
 In the year 2011 he first introduced to the world this
new technology, Li-Fi in the TED talk show.
 He envisions a future where data for laptops and other
mobile devices is transmitted through light in a room.
Introduction to Li-Fi
 Li-Fi (light fidelity) is data through illumination-
taking the ‘fiber out’ of fiber optics by sending data
through an LED light bulb that varies in intensity
faster than the human eye can notice.
 At the heart of this technology is a new generation of
high brightness LEDs.
 If the LED is ‘ON’ a digital 1 is transmitted, if the LED
is ‘OFF’ then a digital 0 is transmitted. They can be
switched on and off in order to transmit data

How does Li-Fi work?
 Light has been around for millions of years now and is
a very cheap resource unlike radio waves.
 Li-Fi is light fidelity technology.
 Generally flickering lights are annoying but when
they are made to flicker at a very fast speed which our
human eye cannot detect they can be very useful.
 This fundamental principle is used in this technology.
 The amplitude of the light is varied at very high speed
which creates an impression that it is not actually
 Any LED light set if used along with a microchip
inside it can used to detect the changes in the light
flickering thus helping in converting light into data in
its digital form.
 This is like sending a Morse code signal using a torch
but at a very fast speed.

 This very high speed blinking of the light enables the
source to transmit data in a rapid stream of binary
code that, although invisible to the naked eye, can be
detected by a light sensitive device.
 Thus every light emitting source can be used as a hub
for data transmission.
 On one end all the data on the internet will be
streamed to a lamp driver.
 When the LED is turned ON the microchip converts
this digital data in the form of light.
 On the other end this light is detected by photo
sensitive devices.
 Next this light is amplified and processed and then fed
to the device.
Architecture of Li-Fi
Present Scenario
 At present we have as many as 1.5 million radio wave
base stations across the globe.
 We also have close to 5 billion mobile connections
which transmit a data over 600TB.
 This penetration of mobile devices into our lives has
led to a wide recognition of WIFI technology.
 At present the data transmission across the globe is
being done using radio wave range of the
electromagnetic spectrum.
 This results in some drawbacks in the current system.

Issues with radio waves
 The current system makes use of radio waves.
 With the increasing number of mobile connections
the availability of the spectrum is getting congested.
 Radio waves forms only a small fraction of the entire
EM spectrum thus making the problem even worse.
 The current system is high on energy consumption.
 For every unit of energy consumed the data
transmitted is relatively less.
 The data speeds in the current system can only reach
up to a few hundreds of megabits per second.
 The availability of the radio waves is yet another major
issue now a days.
 These waves are not much available during the flight
 It is not advisable to use these devices in places like
petrol bunks.
 These radio waves can easily penetrate through the
walls, thus letting anonymous users to use the
 This can pose threat if the people with bad intentions
start using it.
 Possibility of HACKING increases.
 Due the limited availability of the radio waves the
tariff rates are relatively costlier.
 There can be many transparency issues during the
spectrum allocations paving way for many scams like
in the case of 2G.

Benefits of light waves
 Capacity:
 Light is a readily available form of energy and it covers
the major portion of the EM spectrum.
 Visible light spectrum is 10000 times more compared
to radio wave spectrum.

 The data transmission for a unit energy consumption
is high in the case of light waves.
 The data transmission can reach upto thousands of
gigabits per second thus providing very rich data
 Here in Li-Fi data bits can be transmitted parallelly
thus increasing the efficiency.
 Availability:
 Light is readily available in every part of the world.
 This makes it easy for people in airplanes to work on the
 There are an estimated 14 billion light sources on earth and
each can be easily converted into a Li-Fi hotspot.
 In traffic signals Li-Fi can be used which will
communicate with the LED lights of the cars and accident
numbers can be decreased.
 This can even work underwater where Wi-Fi fails
completely, thereby throwing open endless opportunities
for military operations. Imagine only needing to hover
under a street lamp to get public internet access, or
downloading a movie from the lamp on your desk.

 Unlike radio waves light waves cannot penetrate
through opaque objects thus providing plenty of
network privacy.
 No other person can share a network unless the owner
has permitted them to use it.
 The sources can be used as normal lights when there is
no use for a hotspot.
 The tariff rates can be very cheap as light waves are a
cheap resource.
 There can be transparency in spectrum allocations due
to its cheapness.
Wi-Fi v/s Li-Fi
The Future is very bright
 In the next decade this technology can be made
available everywhere.
 Places where optical fibers are difficult to reach can be
reached using this technology.
 Every light source on earth can be a hotspot making
technology very much available to every person on
 Traffic signals vehicles and many other devices can
communicate each other making the world an easy
place to live.
 Thousands of chemical plants can transmit data
without fear as light waves are not hazardous to them.

A car in the near future
 Li-Fi will make are lives more technology driven in the
near future.
 With its magic of light it can make our world a
greener, safer, cleaner and moreover a brighter place to