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Aim#8 How do we

evaluate exponents?

Do Now: What is 2

4

© Boardworks 2012 2 of 18

• Fill in the chart on the board.

© Boardworks 2012 3 of 18

What is an exponent?

For example, we can write 2 × 2 × 2 × 2 × 2 as:

2

5

= 2

5

2 × 2 × 2 × 2 × 2 = 32

base

exponent or power

Introducing exponents

We use exponents to show repeated multiplication by the

same number.

What are exponents used for?

2 3 4 5 1

The exponent is equal to the number of times the base is

multiplied by itself.

This number is

read as “two to

the power of five.”

© Boardworks 2012 4 of 18

• Write in expanded form

3

4

X

5

ab

3

(mn)

4

© Boardworks 2012 5 of 18

• Write in exponential form

m m m m m

3 3 3 3 5 5

(xy) (xy) (xy) ( xy)

a a y y y y

© Boardworks 2012 6 of 18

(–3)

5

= (–3) × (–3) × (–3) × (–3)

= –243

Introducing exponents

What happens if the base is negative?

Only odd exponents produce negative values when they are

evaluated.

= (–3) × (–3) × (–3) × (–3) × (–3)

= (–3) × (–3) × (–3)

= (–3) × (–3)

= (–3) (–3)

1

= –3

(–3)

2

= 9

(–3)

3

= –27

(–3)

4

= 81

© Boardworks 2012 7 of 18

(–4)

4

= –4 × –4 × –4 × –4 = 64

Evaluate the following:

6

2

= 6 × 6 = 36

3

4

= 3 × 3 × 3 × 3 = 81

(–5)

3

= –5 × –5 × –5 = –125

2

7

= 2 × 2 × 2 × 2 × 2 × 2 × 2 = 128

(–1)

5

= –1 × –1 × –1 × –1 × –1 = –1

When we raise a

negative number to

an odd power, the

answer is negative.

When we raise a

negative number to

an even power, the

answer is positive.

Evaluating exponents

Will the last answer be positive or negative?

© Boardworks 2012 8 of 18

• Classwork :

• Math connects skills practice book

• Pg.19

• Questions 1-12

© Boardworks 2012 9 of 18

= 3 × 3 × 3 × 3 × 3 × 3

( ) ( )

When we multiply two numbers with

the same base, the exponents are added.

What do you think happens when we multiply two

numbers written using exponents and the same base?

= 3

4

× 3

2

= 3 × 3 × 3 × 3 × 3 × 3 3

6

7

3

× 7

5

= (7 × 7 × 7)

= 7 × 7 × 7 × 7 × 7 × 7 × 7 × 7

= 7

8

Rules for multiplication

6 = 4 + 2

3 + 5 = 8

× (7 × 7 × 7 × 7 × 7)

© Boardworks 2012 10 of 18

Aim # 9a: What are the laws of

exponents?

• Write if the solution to the following will be

a positive or negative solution.

(-4)

5

(-2)

8

(-1)

6

(-9)

7

© Boardworks 2012 11 of 18

The calculator shows this as 2401.

7

4

= 7 × 7 × 7 × 7 = 2401

Using a calculator

How do you evaluate exponents using a calculator?

We use the x

y

key.

If your calculator does not have the x

y

key, you can press the ^ key instead.

To calculate the value of 7

4

we key in:

© Boardworks 2012 12 of 18

Evaluating activity

© Boardworks 2012 13 of 18

Real life example

© Boardworks 2012 14 of 18

When we divide two numbers with

the same base, the exponents are subtracted.

Can you predict the rule for dividing two numbers written

using exponents and the same base?

For example:

4

5

÷ 4

2

=

4 × 4 × 4 × 4 × 4

4 × 4

= 4 × 4 × 4 = 4

3

5

6

÷ 5

4

=

5 × 5 × 5 × 5 × 5 × 5

5 × 5 × 5 × 5

= 5 × 5 = 5

2

= 4

(5 – 2)

= 5

(6 – 4)

Rules for division

© Boardworks 2012 15 of 18

Writing rules

a

m

× a

n

= a

(m + n)

a

m

÷ a

n

= a

(m – n)

These rules can be written algebraically.

When we multiply two numbers with the same base,

the exponents are added.

When we divide two numbers with the same base,

the exponents are subtracted.

a, m and n can

take any value.

© Boardworks 2012 16 of 18

Negative exponents

© Boardworks 2012 17 of 18

Exponents of 0

© Boardworks 2012 18 of 18

More exponents

(a

m

)

n

= a

(m × n)

What if we raise an exponent and

its base to another power?

When we raise a number that already has an exponent to

another power, the exponents are multiplied.

(5

2

)

3

(5

2

)

3

= 5 × 5 × 5 × 5 × 5 × 5

= 5

6

= (5 × 5) × (5 × 5) × (5 × 5)

2 × 3 = 6

© Boardworks 2012 19 of 18

Any number raised to the power of 1 is equal to that number.

Use your calculator to evaluate the following:

10

1

3.452

1

723,538,592

1

Special cases

a

a

–1

=

1

a

1

= a

6

–1

=

6

1

7

–1

=

7

1

5

–1

=

5

1

Any number with an exponent of -1 is 1 divided by that number.

Now use your calculator to evaluate these:

© Boardworks 2012 20 of 18

a

m

× a

n

= a

(m + n)

a

m

÷ a

n

= a

(m – n)

a

0

= 1

a

a

–1

=

1

a

n

a

–n

=

1

a

1

= a

Rules to remember

Here is a summary of these rules, written algebraically.

(a

m

)

n

= a

(m × n)

© Boardworks 2012 21 of 18

Matching rules

© Boardworks 2012 22 of 18

Simplifying exponents

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