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Aim#8 How do we
evaluate exponents?
Do Now: What is 2
4



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• Fill in the chart on the board.
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What is an exponent?
For example, we can write 2 × 2 × 2 × 2 × 2 as:
2
5
= 2
5
2 × 2 × 2 × 2 × 2 = 32
base
exponent or power
Introducing exponents
We use exponents to show repeated multiplication by the
same number.
What are exponents used for?
2 3 4 5 1
The exponent is equal to the number of times the base is
multiplied by itself.
This number is
read as “two to
the power of five.”
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• Write in expanded form
3
4

X
5

ab
3

(mn)
4



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• Write in exponential form
m m m m m
3 3 3 3 5 5
(xy) (xy) (xy) ( xy)
a a y y y y
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(–3)
5

= (–3) × (–3) × (–3) × (–3)
= –243
Introducing exponents
What happens if the base is negative?
Only odd exponents produce negative values when they are
evaluated.
= (–3) × (–3) × (–3) × (–3) × (–3)
= (–3) × (–3) × (–3)
= (–3) × (–3)
= (–3) (–3)
1
= –3
(–3)
2
= 9
(–3)
3
= –27
(–3)
4
= 81
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(–4)
4
= –4 × –4 × –4 × –4 = 64
Evaluate the following:
6
2
= 6 × 6 = 36
3
4
= 3 × 3 × 3 × 3 = 81
(–5)
3
= –5 × –5 × –5 = –125
2
7
= 2 × 2 × 2 × 2 × 2 × 2 × 2 = 128
(–1)
5
= –1 × –1 × –1 × –1 × –1 = –1
When we raise a
negative number to
an odd power, the
answer is negative.
When we raise a
negative number to
an even power, the
answer is positive.
Evaluating exponents
Will the last answer be positive or negative?
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• Classwork :
• Math connects skills practice book
• Pg.19
• Questions 1-12
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= 3 × 3 × 3 × 3 × 3 × 3
( ) ( )
When we multiply two numbers with
the same base, the exponents are added.
What do you think happens when we multiply two
numbers written using exponents and the same base?
= 3
4
× 3
2
= 3 × 3 × 3 × 3 × 3 × 3 3
6
7
3
× 7
5
= (7 × 7 × 7)
= 7 × 7 × 7 × 7 × 7 × 7 × 7 × 7
= 7
8
Rules for multiplication
6 = 4 + 2
3 + 5 = 8
× (7 × 7 × 7 × 7 × 7)
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Aim # 9a: What are the laws of
exponents?
• Write if the solution to the following will be
a positive or negative solution.
(-4)
5
(-2)
8

(-1)
6

(-9)
7





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The calculator shows this as 2401.
7
4
= 7 × 7 × 7 × 7 = 2401
Using a calculator
How do you evaluate exponents using a calculator?
We use the x
y
key.
If your calculator does not have the x
y

key, you can press the ^ key instead.
To calculate the value of 7
4
we key in:
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Evaluating activity
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Real life example
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When we divide two numbers with
the same base, the exponents are subtracted.
Can you predict the rule for dividing two numbers written
using exponents and the same base?
For example:
4
5
÷ 4
2
=
4 × 4 × 4 × 4 × 4
4 × 4
= 4 × 4 × 4 = 4
3
5
6
÷ 5
4
=
5 × 5 × 5 × 5 × 5 × 5
5 × 5 × 5 × 5
= 5 × 5 = 5
2
= 4
(5 – 2)
= 5
(6 – 4)
Rules for division
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Writing rules
a
m
× a
n
= a
(m + n)
a
m
÷ a
n
= a
(m – n)
These rules can be written algebraically.
When we multiply two numbers with the same base,
the exponents are added.
When we divide two numbers with the same base,
the exponents are subtracted.
a, m and n can
take any value.
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Negative exponents
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Exponents of 0
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More exponents
(a
m
)
n
= a
(m × n)
What if we raise an exponent and
its base to another power?
When we raise a number that already has an exponent to
another power, the exponents are multiplied.
(5
2
)
3
(5
2
)
3
= 5 × 5 × 5 × 5 × 5 × 5
= 5
6
= (5 × 5) × (5 × 5) × (5 × 5)
2 × 3 = 6
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Any number raised to the power of 1 is equal to that number.
Use your calculator to evaluate the following:
10
1
3.452
1
723,538,592
1

Special cases
a

a
–1
=

1
a
1
= a

6
–1
=

6

1
7
–1
=

7

1
5
–1
=

5

1
Any number with an exponent of -1 is 1 divided by that number.
Now use your calculator to evaluate these:
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a
m
× a
n
= a
(m + n)
a
m
÷ a
n
= a
(m – n)
a
0
= 1

a

a
–1
=

1
a
n
a
–n
=

1
a
1
= a

Rules to remember
Here is a summary of these rules, written algebraically.
(a
m
)
n
= a
(m × n)
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Matching rules
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Simplifying exponents