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O MADELEINE LEININGER is considered as the

founder of the theory of TRANSCULTURAL

NURSING. Nurse have always been contender with the
whole person including the physical, emotional,
psychological, spiritual and developmental dimensions.
Broadly defines set of values, beliefs and
traditions that are held by a specific group of
people and handed down from generation to
generation. Culture is also beliefs, habits, likes,
dislikes, customs and rituals learn from one's
It is the set of belief in a divine or super
human power to be obeyed and worshipped as
the creator and ruler of the universe.

The sense of being a part of an ethnic group
or culture.
It refers to objects (dress, art, religious)

It refers to beliefs customs, languages, social
It is composed of people who have a distinct
identity but are related to a larger cultural group.

A person who crosses two cultures, lifestyles,
and sets of values.
It refers to the fact or state of being different.
Diversity can occur between culture and within a
cultural group.

Group which shares a common social and
cultural heritage that is passed on to successive
generation. E.g.: Indian culture, American culture.
(Christians will go to church on Sunday)

The classification of people according to
shared biologic characteristics, genetic markers. Not
all people of the same race have the same culture.
E.g.: Indian race, African race etc..
Transcultural nursing has developed into a
specialty that focuses on the comparative study
and analysis of culture and subcultures.
O Beware that the health concepts held by many
cultural, groups, may result in people choosing
not to seek western medical treatment
procedures because they do not view the
illness or disease as coming from within

O Remember that if the more traditional person does
seek western medical treatment, then that person
might not be able to provide or describe his or her
symptoms in precise terms that the western
medical practitioner can readily treat.

O Recognize that individuals from other culture might not
follow through with health- promoting or treatment
recommendations because they perceive the medical or
other health promoting encountered as a negative or
perhaps even hostile experience.

O Beware of the need to be flexible in the design of
programs, policies, and services to meet the needs
and concerns of the culturally diverse population,
groups that are likely to be encountered.
O Beware that folk illness are generally learned
syndromes that individuals from particular cultural
groups claim to have and from which their culture
defines the etiology, behaviors, diagnostic procedures,
prevention methods and traditional healing or curing

O Remember that most cases of lay illness have
multiple causalities and may require several
different approaches to diagnosis, treatment, and
cure including folk and western medical

O Recognize that folk illness, which are perceived to
arise from a variety of cause, often require the
services of a folk healer who may be a local
corianders, shaman, native healer, spiritualist, root
doctor or other specialized healer.

O Understanding these differences may help us to be
more sensitive to the special beliefs and practices
of multicultural target groups when planning a
O Cultural background affect persons health in all
dimensions, so the nurse should consider the clients
cultural background when planning care.
O Although basic human needs are the same for all
people, the way a person seeks to meet those needs is
influenced by culture.

O To heighten awareness of ways in which their own faith
system. Provides resources for encounters with illness
suffering and death.
O To facilitate in recognizing the role of the hospital
chaplain and the patients clergy as partners in the
health care team in providing care for the patient.

O To encourage in developing and maintain a
program of physical, emotional and spiritual
self-care introduce therapies from the east,
such as Ayurveda and panchakarma.
O The nurse should begin the assessment by
attempting to determine the clients cultural
heritage and language skills. The client should be
asked if any of his health beliefs relate to the cause
of the illness or to the problem. The nurse should
then determine what, home remedies the person is
taking to treat symptoms.

O Nurse should evaluate their attitudes towards ethnic
nursing care. Some nurse may believe they should treat
all clients the same and simply act naturally, but this
attitude fails to acknowledge that cultural differences do
exist and that there is no one natural human
behavior. The nurse cannot act the same with all clients
and still hope to deliver effective individualized, holistic

O The process of self-evaluation can help the nurse
become more comfortable when providing care to
clients from diverse backgrounds.
O Nurses have a responsibility to understand the influence
of culture, race and ethnicity on the development of
social emotional relationship, child rearing and attitude
toward health.

O Socioeconomic influences play major role in
ability to seek opportunity for health promotion for
O Religious practices greatly influences health
promotion belief in families.

O The nurse should have an understanding of the general
characteristics of the major ethnic groups, but should
always individualize care rather than generalize about
all clients in the groups.
O Before assessing the cultural background of a client,
nurses should assess how they are influenced by their
own culture.

O The nursing diagnosis for clients should include potential
in their interaction with the health care system and
problems involving the effects of culture.
O The planning and implantation of nursing interventions
should be adapted as much as possible to the clients
cultural background.

O Evaluation should include the nurses self-evaluation of
attitudes and emotions toward providing nursing care to
clients from diverse socio-cultural backgrounds.
O The clients nursing process, educational level and
language skills should be considered when planning
teaching activities.

O The nurse should begin the assessment by attempting to
determine the clients cultural heritage and language
skills. The client should be asked if any of his health
beliefs relate to the cause of the illness or to the
problem. The nurse should then determine what, if any
home remedies the person is taking to treat the

O Explanations of and practices into nursing therapies,
aspects of care usually not questioned by acculturated
client may be required for non-English speaking or non-
acculturated clients to avoid confusion,
misunderstanding or cultural conflict.

O Discussing cultural questions related to care with the
client and family during the planning stage helps the
nurse understand how cultural variables are related to
the clients health beliefs and practices. So that
interventions can be individualized for the client.

O The nurse evaluates the results of nursing care for
ethnic clients as for all clients, determining the
extent to which the goals of care have been met.