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c
c
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c
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=
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)
¦
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¹
¦
¹
¦
´
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4
4
3
3
2
2
1
1
4 4 3 3 2 2 1 1
4 3 2 1
4 3 2 1
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
v
u
v
u
v
u
v
u
x
N
y
N
x
N
y
N
x
N
y
N
x
N
y
N
y
N
y
N
y
N
y
N
x
N
x
N
x
N
x
N
xy
y
x
¸
c
c
Remember the [B] matrix….
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´
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(
(
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

c
c
c
c
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c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
=
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)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
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3
3
2
2
1
1
3 3 2 2 1 1
3 2 1
3 2 1
0 0 0
0 0 0
v
u
v
u
v
u
x
N
y
N
x
N
y
N
x
N
y
N
y
N
y
N
y
N
x
N
x
N
x
N
xy
y
x
¸
c
c
For triangular element
For quadrilateral element
USING THE [B] MATRIX
X
Y
a
a a
a
b
b
b
b
1
4
3
2
( )( )
ab
y b x a
N
4
1
÷ ÷
=
( )( )
ab
y b x a
N
4
2
÷ +
=
( )( )
ab
y b x a
N
4
3
+ +
=
( )( )
ab
y b x a
N
4
4
+ ÷
=
p x
y
Consider an isoparametric element in XY coordinates as shown. Each node has 2 dof (u and v),
so every point p(x,y) has two displacements. The Interpolation Functions are given below.
Problems that can be formulated:
Pr. 1, Make a =3, b=5, determine All the interpolation functions at each node.

@ Node 1 x=-3 and y=-5








( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( )
1
) 15 ( 4
10 6
) 5 )( 3 ( 4
) 5 ( 5 ) 3 ( 3
4
1
= =
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
=
÷ ÷
=
ab
y b x a
N
( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( )
0
) 15 ( 4
10 0
) 5 )( 3 ( 4
) 5 ( 5 ) 3 ( 3
4
2
= =
÷ ÷ ÷ +
=
÷ +
=
ab
y b x a
N
( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( )
0
) 15 ( 4
0 0
) 5 )( 3 ( 4
) 5 ( 5 ) 3 ( 3
4
3
= =
÷ + ÷ +
=
+ +
=
ab
y b x a
N
( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( )
0
) 15 ( 4
0 6
) 5 )( 3 ( 4
) 5 ( 5 ) 3 ( 3
4
4
= =
÷ + ÷ ÷
=
+ ÷
=
ab
y b x a
N

@ Node 2 x=3 and y=-5








( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( )
0
) 15 ( 4
10 0
) 5 )( 3 ( 4
) 5 ( 5 ) 3 ( 3
4
1
= =
÷ ÷ + ÷
=
÷ ÷
=
ab
y b x a
N
( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( )
1
) 15 ( 4
10 6
) 5 )( 3 ( 4
) 5 ( 5 ) 3 ( 3
4
2
= =
÷ ÷ + +
=
÷ +
=
ab
y b x a
N
( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( )
0
) 15 ( 4
0 6
) 5 )( 3 ( 4
) 5 ( 5 ) 3 ( 3
4
3
= =
÷ + + +
=
+ +
=
ab
y b x a
N
( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( )
0
) 15 ( 4
0 0
) 5 )( 3 ( 4
) 5 ( 5 ) 3 ( 3
4
4
= =
÷ + + ÷
=
+ ÷
=
ab
y b x a
N

@ Node 3 x=3 and y=5








( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( )
0
) 15 ( 4
0 0
) 5 )( 3 ( 4
) 5 ( 5 ) 3 ( 3
4
1
= =
+ ÷ + ÷
=
÷ ÷
=
ab
y b x a
N
( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( )
0
) 15 ( 4
0 6
) 5 )( 3 ( 4
) 5 ( 5 ) 3 ( 3
4
2
= =
+ ÷ + +
=
÷ +
=
ab
y b x a
N
( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( )
1
) 15 ( 4
10 6
) 5 )( 3 ( 4
) 5 ( 5 ) 3 ( 3
4
3
= =
+ + + +
=
+ +
=
ab
y b x a
N
( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( )
0
) 15 ( 4
10 0
) 5 )( 3 ( 4
) 5 ( 5 ) 3 ( 3
4
4
= =
+ + + ÷
=
+ ÷
=
ab
y b x a
N

@ Node 4 x=-3 and y=5








Corollary: All interpolation functions equal 1 when evaluated at their own node, while the others
are zero.
( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( )
0
) 15 ( 4
0 6
) 5 )( 3 ( 4
) 5 ( 5 ) 3 ( 3
4
1
= =
+ ÷ ÷ ÷
=
÷ ÷
=
ab
y b x a
N
( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( )
0
) 15 ( 4
0 0
) 5 )( 3 ( 4
) 5 ( 5 ) 3 ( 3
4
2
= =
+ ÷ ÷ +
=
÷ +
=
ab
y b x a
N
( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( )
0
) 15 ( 4
10 0
) 5 )( 3 ( 4
) 5 ( 5 ) 3 ( 3
4
3
= =
+ + ÷ +
=
+ +
=
ab
y b x a
N
( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( )
1
) 15 ( 4
10 6
) 5 )( 3 ( 4
) 5 ( 5 ) 3 ( 3
4
4
= =
+ + ÷ ÷
=
+ ÷
=
ab
y b x a
N
Pr. 2, Make a =3, b=5, determine All the interpolation functions at point p(2,1).

@ Point p (x=2 and y=1)








( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( )
15
1
) 15 ( 4
4 1
) 5 )( 3 ( 4
) 1 ( 5 ) 2 ( 3
4
1
= =
+ ÷ + ÷
=
÷ ÷
=
ab
y b x a
N
( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( )
15
5
) 15 ( 4
4 5
) 5 )( 3 ( 4
) 1 ( 5 ) 2 ( 3
4
2
= =
+ ÷ + +
=
÷ +
=
ab
y b x a
N
( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( )
2
1
) 15 ( 4
6 5
) 5 )( 3 ( 4
) 1 ( 5 ) 2 ( 3
4
3
= =
+ + + +
=
+ +
=
ab
y b x a
N
( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( )
10
1
) 15 ( 4
6 1
) 5 )( 3 ( 4
) 1 ( 5 ) 2 ( 3
4
4
= =
+ + + ÷
=
+ ÷
=
ab
y b x a
N
Pr. 3, Make a =3, b=5, determine the displacements (u, v) at point p(2,1).
For the following nodal displacements :


Solution:








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¦
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¦
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)
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¦
¦
¦
¦
`
¹
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¹
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
´
¦
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
0
0
1 .
0
1 .
0
0
0
4
4
3
3
2
2
1
1
v
u
v
u
v
u
v
u
0 0
10
1
0
2
1
0
15
5
0
15
1
4 4 3 3 2 2 1 1 ) 1 , 2 (
= × + × + × + × = + + + = u N u N u N u N u
p
083 . 0 0
10
1
1 . 0
2
1
1 . 0
15
5
0
15
1
4 4 3 3 2 2 1 1 ) 1 , 2 (
= × + × + × + × = + + + = v N v N v N v N v
p
Pr. 4, Determine Strains at point p(2,1), for the given nodal displacements

Solution: Just because all u’s are 0








0
4
4
3
3
2
2
1
1
) 1 , 2 (
=
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
=
c
c
= u
x
N
u
x
N
u
x
N
u
x
N
x
u
p
x
c
) 0 ( ) 1 . 0 ( ) 1 . 0 ( ) 0 (
4 3 2 1
4
4
3
3
2
2
1
1
) 1 , 2 (
y
N
y
N
y
N
y
N
v
y
N
v
y
N
v
y
N
v
y
N
y
v
p
y
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
=
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
=
c
c
= c
Pr. 4, Continuation
Find derivatives of N’s with respect to X and Y

























COROLLARY: CASE OF PURE SHEAR
( ) ( )
60
1
) 5 )( 3 ( 4
) 2 ( 3
4
1
÷ =
÷ ÷
=
÷ ÷
=
c
c
ab
x a
y
N
( )( )
ab
y b x a
N
4
1
÷ ÷
=
( )( )
ab
y b x a
N
4
2
÷ +
=
( )( )
ab
y b x a
N
4
3
+ +
=
( )( )
ab
y b x a
N
4
4
+ ÷
=
( ) ( )
12
1
60
5
) 5 )( 3 ( 4
) 2 ( 3
4
2
÷ = ÷ =
+ ÷
=
+ ÷
=
c
c
ab
x a
y
N
( ) ( )
12
1
60
5
) 5 )( 3 ( 4
) 2 ( 3
4
3
= =
+
=
+
=
c
c
ab
x a
y
N
( ) ( )
60
1
) 5 )( 3 ( 4
) 2 ( 3
4
3
=
÷
=
÷
=
c
c
ab
x a
y
N
0 ) 0 (
60
1
) 1 . 0 (
12
1
) 1 . 0 (
12
1
) 0 (
60
1
) 0 ( ) 1 . 0 ( ) 1 . 0 ( ) 0 (
4 3 2 1
= + + ÷ ÷ =
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
=
y
N
y
N
y
N
y
N
y
c
4
4
4
4
3
3
3
3
2
2
2
2
1
1
1
1
v
x
N
u
y
N
v
x
N
u
y
N
v
x
N
u
y
N
v
x
N
u
y
N
xy
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
= ¸
) 0 ( ) 0 ( ) 1 . 0 ( ) 0 ( ) 1 . 0 ( ) 0 ( ) 0 ( ) 0 (
4 4 3 3 2 2 1 1
x
N
y
N
x
N
y
N
x
N
y
N
x
N
y
N
xy
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
= ¸
0166 . 0
) 3 ( 2
1 . 0
) 1 . 0 (
2
) 1 . 0 (
4
) (
) 1 . 0 (
4
) (
) 1 . 0 ( ) 1 . 0 (
3 2
= = =
+
+
÷
=
c
c
+
c
c
=
ab
b
ab
y b
ab
y b
x
N
x
N
xy
¸
X
Y
a
a a
a
b
b
b
b
1
4
3
2
p x
y
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
)
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
`
¹
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¹
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
´
¦
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
0
0
1 .
0
1 .
0
0
0
4
4
3
3
2
2
1
1
v
u
v
u
v
u
v
u
0.1
0.1
COROLLARY: CASE OF PURE SHEAR
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
=
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
0166 . 0
0
0
xy
y
x
¸
c
c
Problem 5. Calculate strains at p(1,1), p(-1,2), p(-2,2) and any other point
Answer: THE SAME, Because this is a case of pure shear, all
the strains anywhere in the element are the SAME..







Notice how the shear strain
does not depend on position
of point p, only on a=3 and v=0.1
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
=
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
0166 . 0
0
0
xy
y
x
¸
c
c
0166 . 0
) 3 ( 2
1 . 0
) 1 . 0 (
2
) 1 . 0 (
4
) (
) 1 . 0 (
4
) (
) 1 . 0 ( ) 1 . 0 (
3 2
= = =
+
+
÷
=
c
c
+
c
c
=
ab
b
ab
y b
ab
y b
x
N
x
N
xy
¸
0166 . 0
6
1 . 0
) 3 ( 2
1 . 0
) 1 . 0 (
2
1
) 1 . 0 (
2
= = = = =
a ab
b
xy
¸
Assignment (not to be graded)……

Determine the strains at point p(2,1) if the nodal displacements are:
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
)
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
`
¹
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¹
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
´
¦
=
=
÷ =
=
=
=
=
÷ =
0
0
1 .
0
1 .
0
0
1 .
4
4
3
3
2
2
1
1
v
u
v
u
v
u
v
u
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
)
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
`
¹
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¹
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
´
¦
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
=
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
4
4
3
3
2
2
1
1
4 4 3 3 2 2 1 1
4 3 2 1
4 3 2 1
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
v
u
v
u
v
u
v
u
x
N
y
N
x
N
y
N
x
N
y
N
x
N
y
N
y
N
y
N
y
N
y
N
x
N
x
N
x
N
x
N
xy
y
x
¸
c
c
Remember the [B] matrix….