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Attitudes

Attitudes
Types of Attitudes
The Attitude Behavior Cognition (ABC) Model
of Attitude
Managerial Style
Technology
Noise
Peers
Reward System
Career opportunities
Beliefs & values
Feelings & emotions
Intended Behavior
Stimuli
Work Related Factors
Cognition

Affecting
Stage

Behavior

My supervisor is unfair
Having a fair supervisor
Is important to me
I don’t like my supervisor
I am going to request for
a transfer
Attitude Formation
Attitudes
Experience with
The object
Mass
Communication
Economic
Status
Neighborhood
Family &
Peer Groups
Classical
Conditioning
Operant
Conditioning
Social Learning
Functions of Attitudes
Attitudes
Adjustment
Knowledge
Ego
Defensive
Value
Expression
Difficulties in Changing Attitudes
• Escalation of Commitment
• Cognitive Dissonance
• Insufficient Information
Escalation of Commitment
• It refers to the prior commitment of people to a
particular cause & their unwillingness to change.

• Extension of groupthink could lead to escalation of
commitment.
Desire to reduce dissonance
• Importance of elements creating dissonance
• Degree of individual influence over elements
• Rewards involved in dissonance
The Theory of Cognitive Dissonance
Cognitive Dissonance
• The discomfort experienced by people
feeling cognitive dissonance leads to efforts
to reduce the tension by:
– Changing the attitudes
– Changing the behavior
– Rationalizing the inconsistency
Measuring the A-B Relationship
• Recent research indicates that the attitudes (A)
significantly predict behaviors (B) when
moderating variables are taken into account.
Moderating Variables
• Importance of the attitude
• Specificity of the attitude
• Accessibility of the attitude
• Social pressures on the individual
• Direct experience with the attitude
Ways of Changing Attitudes
Changing attitudes of the self:

• Be aware of one’s own attitudes
• Think for self
• Realize that there are few, if any, benefits from harboring
negative attitudes
• Keep an open mind
• Get into continuous education & development programs
• Build a positive self-esteem
• Stay away from negative influences.
Changing attitudes of the Employees:

• Give feedback on a regular basis.
• Accentuate positive attitude.
• Be the role model
• Provide new information
• Use fear & coercion
• Use rewards
• Influence of friends/peers
• Applying co-opting approaches



Ways of Changing Attitudes
Work Related Attitudes
• Job Satisfaction
• Organizational Commitment
• Involvement & Participation
• Psychological Ownership
Job Satisfaction
• It refers to the general attitude of the employees
towards their jobs & the organization.
Organizational
Factors
Group Factors
Individual
Factors
Outcomes
Expected/valued
Outcomes
Received
Job
Satisfaction
Job
Dissatisfaction
Low
Turnover
Low
Absenteeism
High
Turnover
High
Absenteeism
A Model of Job Satisfaction
Performance & Job Satisfaction
Performance
Extrinsic
Rewards
Intrinsic
Rewards
Job
Satisfaction
Perceived
Equity of rewards
Lawler-Porter Model of Performance & Job Satisfaction
Responses to Job
Dissatisfaction
Organizational Commitment
• It is the relative strength of an individual’s
identification with and involvement in a particular
organization.
Components
Affective
Component
Normative
Component
Continuance
Component
Emotional
Attachment to the
organization
It is based on the
Belief that
Commitment is
“the right” thing
“to do”
It is based on the
Costs an employee
Associates with
Leaving the orgn.
Personal
Traits
Job/Role
Expectations
Job Choice
factors
Organizational
Commitment
Propensity
Initial Work
Experience
Psychological
Ownership
Experienced
responsibility
Experienced
meaningfulness
Organizational
Commitment
Employability
Causes of Organizational Commitment
Psychological Ownership
• It is the state in which an individual feels as though
the target of ownership (or a piece of ownership) is
their own.

• It develops through empowerment, self-
management opportunities, expanded roles, and
participation in organizational problem solving.
Causes & Consequences of
Psychological Ownership
Involvement
Opportunities
Information
(intimate
Knowledge)

Influence

Investing of
Oneself
Antecedent Conditions
Psychological
Ownership
Organizational
Citizenship
Behavior

Assumption of
Responsibility

Satisfaction

Organizational
Commitment

Assumption of
Personal Risk for
The target of
Ownership
Consequent Conditions
Management of Employee
Attitudes
• Organizational Structure
• Organizational Climate
• Organizational Culture
• Working Conditions
• Job Design
• Impact of Technology
• Security
• Organizational Policies
• Pay & Rewards
• Co-workers
Employee attitudes,
beliefs, feelings &
intentions