You are on page 1of 50

OMF010003 Power Control

ISSUE1.4
Wireless Training Department
Power control overview
HWⅠpower control
HWⅡpower control

Course Contents
Power Control Overview
 Power control
 Adjust the transmitting power of BTS and MS when needed.
 Based on measurement reports of BTS and MS
 Purpose
 Save the power of BTS and MS;
 Reduce the interference of the network;
 Increase the quality of the network.
Power Control Overview
 Power control includes uplink power control and downlink
power control, Which are performed independently
 Uplink power control: Adjust TX power of MS to let BTS receive
stable signal, reduce the uplink co-channel and adjacent
channel interference, reduce power consumption of MS.
 Downlink power control: Adjust BTS TX power to let MS receive
stable signal, reduce the downlink co-channel and adjacent
channel interference, reduce power consumption of BTS.

Power Control Overview
 Process of power control commands
 It takes 3 measurement report periods(480ms/period) from
command sending to execution.
SA0 SA1 SA0 SA0 SA1 SA1 SA2 SA2 SA2 SA3 SA3 SA3
BTS sends the command for power
control and TA in SACCH header.
MS obtains SACCH
block
MS begins to send the
measurement report of the
last multi-frame.
In the 26 multi-frames,
frame 12 sends
SACCH.
BTS receives the
measurement report
SACCCH report period:
26X4=104 frames (480ms)
MS adopts the new
power level and TA
MS begins to set up a new SACCH header
to report the new TA and power control
message.
Power Control Overview
 Huawei power control algorithm: HW I and HW II power control
Measurement report
pre-processing

Power control algorithm
selection
Yes
HW I power control
algorithm
HW II power control
algorithm
GSM0508 power control
algorithm
Power Control Overview
 Power control judgment and the selection of HWI algorithm or
HWII algorithm
 Power control algorithm selected in power control data table
 Power control judgment is controlled by BTS measurement
report pre-processing item which can be selected in handover
control data table
 MR. Pre-process (measurement report pre-processing): This
switch decide where power control be processed. If
measurement report pre-processing is “yes”, power control is
processed in BTS, and when setting it “no”, power control is
processed in BSC.
Power control overview
HWⅠpower control
HWⅡpower control
Course Contents
HW I Power Control
 HW I power control
 Process of HW I power control
 MR pre-processing
 Data configuration for HW I power control
 comparison of uplink power control with downlink power control

 Process of HW I power control

Measurement report
pre-processing
Aim achieved ?
Power control calculation and
adjustment
N
Y
HW I Power Control

 Original data of power control -- measurement report
Network
Downlink
measurement
report
Uplink MR
BTS
HW I Power Control

Uplink
measurement
report
Downlink
measurement
report
HW I Power Control
 Measurement report

 Measurement report pre-processing -- interpolation
 Each measurement report has a serial number. When the serial
numbers are discontinuous, this indicates that some
measurement reports must be missed. In this case, the network
will fill up the measurement report according to interpolation
algorithm.

MR
MR
MR
MR
MR
Measurement report
serial number n
Measurement report
serial number n+4
Consecutive measurement report flow
3 missing measurement reports
HW I Power Control

 Measurement report pre-processing -- filtering
 Calculate average results of several consecutive measurement
reports to obtain the current information, reduce the influence of
some abnormal measurement reports for the judgment of power
control.
MR
MR

MR

MR

MR
MR
Consecutive measurement report flow
Filter
HW I Power Control
[BTS power control table]

 HW I power control data configuration and parameter
introduction
Parameter
name
Meaning Value
range
Recommende
d value
DL RX_LEV
Expected
The expected signal level of MS in stable status, Expected
stable downlink signal level > downlink edge HO threshold,
Otherwise, ping-pang HO will be caused.
0~63 35
DL RX_LEV
Compensati
on
The power adjustment value varies with this parameter. The
adjustment value caused by power level equal to the difference
between the expected signal level and the actual receiving
signal level multiply this factor.
0~100% 80%
(signal ex-signal
rx)*80%=adjust
ment value
DL Qual.
Expected
Expected signal quality of MS in stable status. 0 ~ 7
Levels
1
DL
Qual.Comp
ensation
The power adjustment value varies with this parameter. The
adjustment value caused by signal quality equal to
10*difference between the expected signal quality level and the
actual receiving signal quality level multiply this factor.
0~100% 20%
[10*(quality
RX-quality
EX)*20%]
MAX PC
Step
maximum adjustment range in one BTS power control
command
Levels
0~16,
2dB each
step
8

HW I Power Control
HW I Power Control
[BTS power control table]
Parameter
name
Meaning Value
range
Recommende
d value
BTS PC
Period
Time interval for implementing two power control commands
(unit count of SACCH period)
1~10 5
Filter length
for DL
RX_LEV
Content: indicating the number of measurement reports in
which the average of uplink signal strength is taken before MS
power adjustment at stable stage. The purpose is to remove
the influence of some abnormal reports. When the filter length
is too long, the influence due to abnormal reports will be
weakened, but the MS power adjustment is not timely.
1~32 5
BTS Min
power
Indicating the minimum transmitting power value supported by
the BTS
0~36 4
BTS Max
power
Indicating the maximum transmitting power value supported
by the BTS.
0~56 According to
BTS type


[MS power control data table]


Parameter
name
Meaning Value range Recom-
mended
value
initial
RX_LEV
expected
The expected BTS receiving signal level in the initial stage
when MS access the network.
0~63dBm 30
Stable
EX_LEV
Expected
The expected BTS receiving signal level in stable status.
Expected stable signal level > uplink margin HO threshold
(HO parameter). Otherwise, “ping-pang” HO will be caused.
0~63dBm 30
UL RX_LEV
compensati
on
Give an adjustment for the power control level value, the
actual power level value MS should change is the result of
this parameter multiply the difference between the expected
uplink signal level and the actual BTS receiving signal level.
0~100% 80%
UL Qual.
Expected
The expected BTS receiving signal quality in stable status.
UL Qual.
compensat
ion
The power adjustment value varies with this parameter. The
adjustment value caused by signal quality equal to
10*difference between the expected signal quality level and
the actual receiving signal quality level times this factor.
0~100% 20%
Max PC
step
The maximum level of MS power that can be dynamically
adjusted.
Level 1~16,
2dB/level.
8
HW I Power Control

Parameter name Meaning Value
range
Value
recommen
ded
PC interval Time interval between the implementations of two
power control algorithms; unit: SACCH period
0~30 5
Filter length for
Initial RX_LEV
This is the number of measurement reports
required for predicting the signal strength at the
initial stage. Unit: Measurement reports
1~32 2
Filter length for
stable RX_LEV
This is the number of measurement reports
required for predicting the signal strength at the
stable power control stage. Unit: Measurement
reports
1-31 5
Filter length for
Qual.
This is the number of the measurement reports
required for assessing signal quality at the stable
stage. Unit: Number of measurement reports
1~30 6

[MS power control table]
HW I Power Control

 HW I power control judgment
 The adjustment on the current output power=(Expected signal
strength in stable status - strength of signal currently received) *
up (down) link compensating factor +[quality of uplink(downlink)
currently received - expected uplink(downlink) quality]*10*
uplink(downlink) quality compensating factor
 The final adjustment power level should be no more than the
maximum power control step size, the formula for stable level is:
stable level = currently level + the adjustment value on current
out put power
HW I Power Control
HW I Power Control
 Power control will not occur in case of these three conditions
 Both level and quality equal to the setting values (HW I power
control), or level and quality are within threshold band(HW II
power control)
 Adjusting range less than error tolerance
 Adjusting range less than minimum power control step

 HW I power control judgment
 Before judging the signal level to be adjusted, query the error
tolerance table according to the current transmitting power level.
Adjustment will not be done if the power adjustment value is less
than the error tolerance value.
 Error tolerance table for 900M and 1800M is as follows:

HW I Power Control
1800M:

Level
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19
Error tolerance 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 2 2 2

900M

Level
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19
Error tolerance 2 2 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 6 6 6 6

 Comparison uplink and downlink of HW I power control .
 Similarity:
 1. To avoid frequently changes of signal level, the PC interval time
between the two consecutive uplink and downlink power control are
limited.
 2. To reduce the influence caused by abnormal reports, all
measurement reports should be filtered.
 3. Both uplink and downlink power controls include level-specific
and quality-specific power controls.
 4. Both uplink and downlink power controls have maximum power
control step size limit and compensating factor.
HW I Power Control

 Comparison uplink and downlink of HW I power control .
 Differentia:
 1. Including power control for the stable status, MS also has power
control when MS access the network, thus to reduce transmitting
power of MS as soon as possible.
 2. For uplink, precautions are ready for increase MS transmitting
power in case HO fails.
 3. For downlink, there are maximum and minimum transmitting
power limits in power control data configuration.

HW I Power Control

 HW I power control exercise
 Given conditions:
 900M MS transmitting at the maximum power, uplink receiving level
of the 900M BTS is –60dBm, uplink quality level is always 0.
 Parameter configuration in [BTS power/MS power control table] is
as follows – “stable RX_LEV Expected” is 35, “UL RX_LEV
Compensation” is 80, “UL Qual. expected ” is 1, and “UL Qual.
compensation” is 20, and the max. PC step is 16dB.
HW I Power Control

 HW I power control exercise
 Question:
 1. Suppose that power control will no longer be done once the
power value to be adjusted is less than 2dB, what is the
approximate stable power value after power control with the above
data configuration?
 2. According to the error tolerance list, suppose the initial MS
transmitting power is level 3, what is the maximum uplink receiving
level in stable status after power control?

Exercise

 HW I power control exercise
 Answers for question 1:
 Stable level = current actual level + [(expected signal intensity in
stable status – current actual level) * uplink path loss compensating
factor] + [actual current quality – expected uplink signal quality) * 10 *
uplink quality compensating factor] = -60+[(-75-(-60))*80 %]+[(0-
1)*10*20%] = -60-12-2 = -74dBm. Now it’s necessary to adjust -14dB
(no larger than the maximum power control step size), but it needs
further adjustment because it fails to reach -75dBm, the “expected
signal level in stable status”. Use -74 in the above formula again for
calculation, and the power to be adjusted is -2.8dB. Because no
power control adjustment will be done when the power value to be
adjusted is smaller than -2, it still needs to be changed 2dB lower, so
the uplink receiving level is -76dBm at last.
Exercise

 Answers for question 2:
 Query the error tolerance table, the tolerance of level 3 is 4dB, the
power to be adjusted for the second time is 2.8, which is less than 4
and up to the requirement, so the final uplink receiving level is -
74dBm in stable status.

Exercise
Power control overview
HWⅠpower control
HWⅡpower control
Course Contents

 HW I I power control
 Power control algorithm implementation
 Main feature of HW I I Power control

HW I I Power Control

 Power control judgment process
HW I I Power Control
Measurement report pre-
processing
The power control demand
according to the receiving
level
General power control
judgement
Send the power control
command
The power control
demand according to
receiving quality

 Power control demand based on receiving level.
 After measurement report pre-processing, the power control
module makes a comparison between the expected signal level
and the current receiving signal level.
 Calculate the transmitting power level step size to be adjusted,
making the receiving level value closer to the expected value.
 Adopt variable step size when adjusting the transmitting power
according to the receiving level, so as to achieve the expected
level as soon as possible.

HW I I Power Control

 Power control demand based on receiving quality
 After measurement report pre-processing, the power control
module makes comparison between the expected quality level
and the current receiving quality level.
 Calculate the step size of the transmitting power level to be
adjusted.
 Increase the transmitting power in case of poor receiving quality
 Decrease the transmitting power in case of good receiving
quality
 Adopt fixed step size when adjust the transmitting power
according to the receiving quality.
HW I I Power Control

 General power control judgment

Power control by receiving
level
Power control by receiving
quality
Power control by signal level
and quality
↓ AdjStep_Lev ↓ AdjStep_Qul ↓
max(AdjStep_Lev,AdjStep_Qul)
↓ AdjStep_Lev ↑ AdjStep_Qul No action
↓ AdjStep_Lev No action ↓ AdjStep_Lev
↑AdjStep_Lev ↓ AdjStep_Qul ↑AdjStep_Lev
↑AdjStep_Lev ↑ AdjStep_Qul ↑
max(AdjStep_Lev,AdjStep_Qul)
↑AdjStep_Lev No action ↑AdjStep_Lev
No action ↓ AdjStep_Qul ↓ AdjStep_Qul
No action ↑ AdjStep_Qul ↑ AdjStep_Qul
No action No action No action

HW I I Power Control

 HW I I power control
 Power control algorithm implementation
 Main feature of HW I I Power control
HW I I Power Control

 HW II power control has the following advantages:
 Measurement report compensation -- makes power control
judgment more accurate
 Measurement report prediction --to avoid power control later
than needed, the delay is dangerous in case of poor level or bad
quality
 Power control expected signal level and quality threshold falls
within a band, this avoids receiving signal level fluctuate up and
down frequently

HW II Power Control

 Measurement report compensation
 Purpose: Ensure the accuracy of selection of the history
measurement report before filtering.
 Implementation steps:
 1. Put the current receiving measurement report into the measurement
report compensation queue.
 2. Record the changed information of the transmitting power according
to the MS and BTS power levels in the measurement report.
 3.After finish the measurement report compensation, system will
compensate the receiving level of the history measurement report
according to the power change information. The compensated
measurement reports will be the original data in the filter process.
 4. Filter the compensated measurement reports.
HW II Power Control

 Measurement report compensation
The expected receiving signal level: 30
The power control will be more effective with measurement report
compensation.
X axis
1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

1
0

1
1

1
2

1
3

1
4

1
5

1
6

1
7

1
8

1
9

2
0

2
1

2
2

2
3

2
4

2
5

2
6

2
7

2
8

2
9

3
0

3
1

3
2

3
3

3
4

3
5

3
6

3
7

3
8

3
9

4
0

4
1

4
2

4
3

4
4

4
5

4
6

4
7

4
8

4
9

5
0
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
Y

a
x
i
s

Power control diagram when there is
measurement report compensation
Diagram when there is no power control
Power control diagram when there is no
measurement report compensation

Power control effect diagram of measurement report compensation
HW II Power Control

 Measurement report prediction
 Purpose
 to avoid power control later than needed, the delay is dangerous in
case of poor level or bad quality
 Implementation procedure
 1. Analyze the tendency of MR by the historical measurement
reports after interpolation.
 2. Guide by the tendency, to predict the values of measurement
report to be received. There are 0~3 measurement reports
prediction, which are configured on OMC.
 3. Filter the interpolated, compensated and predicted measurement
reports, and implement power control judgment.

HW II Power Control

 Measurement report prediction
1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

1
0

1
1

1
2

1
3

1
4

1
5

1
6

1
7

1
8

1
9

2
0

2
1

2
2

2
3

2
4

2
5

2
6

2
7

2
8

2
9

3
0

3
1

3
2

3
3

3
4

3
5

3
6

3
7

3
8

3
9

4
0

4
1

4
2

4
3

4
4

4
5

4
6

4
7

4
8

4
9

5
0

X axis
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
Y

a
x
i
s

No power control
Mean filter power
control
Prediction filter power
control
Diagram of power control effect comparison between prediction filter and mean filter
The expected receiving signal level: 30
The power control with prediction filter will be more effective than that with
mean filter
HW II Power Control

 Adaptive power control:
 Adaptive power control refers to changeable power control
strategy according to the communication environment, it makes
power control more effective and stable.
 Automatically change the adjustable maximum step size of power
control according to different communication environment (different
receiving quality).
 Adopt different power control strategies according to different
communication environments (different receiving quality and level).
HW II Power Control

 Power control within the upper/lower thresholds
 As for HW II power control in case of calculating power control
step size according to signal level and quality, the signal level
and quality have upper/lower thresholds. Power control will not
execute if the signal level and quality is within the threshold
bands.
 Avoid the signal level up-and-down caused by power control.
HW II Power Control

 Simple parameter configuration
 All needed to do is to configure simple parameters as follows:
 Signal level and quality upper/lower thresholds of up/down link
 Three kinds of step sizes for adjustment by level
 Step size for adjustment by quality
HW II Power Control

[HW II power control table] main parameters –1:
Parameter
name
Meaning
Value
range
Recommen
ded value
filter length
for UL
RX_LEV
How many uplink measurement reports obtained for the average
uplink signal level to be used for uplink power control adjustment.
1~20 6
filter length
for DL
RX_LEV
How many downlink measurement reports obtained for the average
downlink signal level to be used for downlink power control
adjustment.
1~20 6
filter length
for UL Qual.
How many uplink measurement reports obtained for the average
uplink quality level to be used for uplink power control adjustment.
1~20 6
filter length
for DL Qual.
How many downlink measurement reports obtained for the average
downlink quality level to be used for downlink power control
adjustment.
1~20 6
MR
compensati
on allowed
If “yes”, System put the currently received measurement report into
the measurement report compensation queue, and record the
transmitting power information according to MS and BTS power
values. And then interpolation, compensate the receiving level
value of the record measurement report according to the power
change information.
Yes, no Yes
UL MR
number
predicted
The number of uplink pred. MR in the filter using for power control
judgment.
0~3 reports 2
DL MR
number
predicted
The number of downlink pred. MR in the filter using for power
control judgment.
0~3 reports 2

HW II Power Control

[HW II power control table] main parameters –2:
Parameter
name
Meaning Value
range
Recommended
value
PC interval Time between two power control command implementation 1~30
(SACCH
period)
5
UL RX_LEV
upper
threshold
This parameter specifies the uplink signal level upper threshold.
When the signal level higher than this value, calculate a power
decrement [=receiving level - (upper threshold + lower
threshold)/2]. This decrement value should consider together with
the maximum step size allowed for different quality zone which
the receiving signal quality located.
0~63 35
UL RX_LEV
lower
threshold
This parameter specifies the uplink signal level lower threshold.
When the signal level higher than this value, calculate a power
increase [= (upper threshold + lower threshold)/2- receiving level].
This increase also consider together with the maximum step size
allowed for different quality zone which the receiving signal
quality located.
0~63 25
UL Qual.
upper
threshold
This parameter specifies the uplink quality upper threshold. Level
0~7
0
UL Qual.
lower
threshold
This parameter specifies the uplink quality lower threshold for
power control
Level
0~7
2

HW II Power Control

[HW II power control table] main parameters--3
Parameter
name
Meaning Value range
Recommen
ded value
DL RX_LEV
upper threshold
This parameter specifies the downlink signal level upper
threshold. When the signal level higher than this value,
calculate a power decrement [=receiving level – (upper
threshold + lower threshold)/2]. This decrement should
consider together with the maximum step size allowed for
different quality zone which the receiving signal quality
located.
0~63 40
DL EX_LEV
lower threshold
This parameter specifies the downlink signal level lower
threshold. When the signal level higher than this value,
calculate a power increase [= (upper threshold + lower
threshold)/2- receiving level]. This increase also consider
together with the maximum step size allowed for different
quality zone which the receiving signal quality located.
0~63 30
DL Qual. upper
threshold
This parameter specifies the downlink quality upper
threshold for power control
Level 0~7 0
DL Qual. lower
threshold
This parameter specifies the downlink quality lower
threshold for power control
Level 0~7 2

HW II Power Control

[HW II power control table] main parameters--4
Parameter
name
Meaning Value range Recommende
d value
max. adj. value
for Qual. Zone
0
This parameter specifies the maximum power adj.
step size allowed when adj. the power according to
the signal level when the Rx quality is 0.
0~30dB 16
max. adj. value
for Qual. Zone
1
This parameter specifies the maximum power adj.
step size allowed when adj. the power according to
the signal level when the Rx quality is 1 or 2.
0~30dB 8
max. adj. value
for Qual. Zone
2
This parameter specifies the maximum power adj.
step size allowed when adj. the power according to
the signal level when the R x quality is equal to or
more than 3.
0~30dB 4
adj. PC value
by Rx Qual.
Specifying the adj. step size allow ed when the
power control is adjusted according the receiving
signal quality. That is to say, the step size is
constant for power control by quality, but the step
size varies with quality in case of power control by
signal level.
0~4dB 4

HW II Power Control

 Exercises for HW II power control
 Given conditions:
 The uplink receiving level is -85dBm, the quality is level 4. Power
control algorithm is HW II.
 Data configuration is as follows: Uplink signal level upper threshold:
-60dBm, uplink signal level lower threshold: - 80dBm. Uplink signal
upper quality threshold: level 0. Uplink signal lower quality threshold:
level 2. The adjustable step size of quality band 0 is 16dB, of quality
band 1 is 8dB, and of quality 2 is 4 dB. The adjustable step size for
power control by quality is 4dB.
 Question: What will be the uplink stable receiving level after
power control?
Exercise

 Exercises for HW II power control
 Answer.
 First, transmitting power to be added according to receiving level =
(uplink signal level upper threshold + uplink signal level lower
threshold)/2-actual receiving level = (-60 + (-80))/2-(-85)=(-70)-(-
85)=15dB. As the receiving quality is level 4, only adjustable step
size of quality band 2 can be used -- increase 4dB.
 Second, the transmitting power to be increased according to
receiving quality = as “power control adjustment step size by quality”
is 4dB, thus increase 4dB, the same as adjustment by signal level.
 Therefore, according to the general judgement on power control,
4dB should be increased for adjustment either by level or by quality.
Exercise

 Exercises for HW II power control
 Answer .
 After the implementation of step 1 power control, the receiving level
becomes: -85dBm + 4dB=-81dBm, Suppose the quality reach
already in level 2 here, it still fails within the expected band -
80dBm~-60dBm. Therefore, it needs to be adjusted.
 First: adjust by level -- repeat the previous step: adjustment by level
= (-70) – (-81) = 11db, i.e. to increase 11dB. If the receiving quality
has been improved to level 2, and the adjustable step size with
quality band 1 is 8dB. Then, the result of adjustment by level is to
increase 8dB.
 Second: adjustment by quality--as the receiving quality value is
between 0 and 2, Needn’t adjust.
 Therefore, the uplink stable receiving level = (-81) + 8 = -73dBm.
Exercise