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MINERAL

Role and Function
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Minerals are important and essential to
life.
Minerals are inorganic chemical
compounds.
The body only needs minerals in small
amounts; however, it needs them on a
regular basis.
Mineral are stored in the body

MINERAL
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Mineral elements required
 Macro – 7
Calcium (Ca), Phosphorus (P), Magnesium (Mg), Sulfur (S),
Sodium (Na), Chlorine (Cl), Potassium (K)
 Micro – 9 (trace elements)
Iron (Fe), Copper (Cu), Manganese (Mn), Zinc (Zn), Selenium (Se),
Iodine (I), Chromium (Cr), Cobalt (Co), Fluorine (F)


MINERAL
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MINERAL
A. Dietary Essentials
1. Macrominerals
- Requirements as % of diet
2. Micro or trace minerals
- Requirements as ppm, mg/kg
B. Toxic Elements
Many of these are also dietary
essentials
Cu, NaCl, Se, F, Cadmium, Pb, Hg


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MINERAL
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· Excessive Calcium Loss of Magnesium & Zinc
· Excessive Sodium & Potassium Deficiency of Calcium & Magnesium
· Excessive Calcium & Magnesium Deficiency of Sodium & Potassium
· Excessive Sodium Loss of Potassium
· Excessive Potassium Loss of Sodium
· Excessive Copper Loss of Zinc
· Excessive Zinc Loss of Copper & Iron
· Excessive Phosphorus Loss of Calcium
Examples of minerals out of balance
Source: Natures Prescription Milk by Gloria Gilbere
FUNCTIONS OF MINERAL IN FOOD
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•Pigment component and formation
•Myoglobin component and formation
(Fe)
•Enzyme component/activator
•Protein component
•Nucleic acid component
CHLOROPHYLL – effects of pH
– pH 5: chlorophyll has its normal vegetable green
color
– pH < 5: Mg
+2
is lost and the color changes to the
characteristic pheophytin olive green color
– pH >7: the methyl and phytyl esters are
removed, producing chlorophyllin which is a
bright green color.

N
N
N
N
CH
3
O
O O
O
O
C H
3
C H
3
CH
2
C H
3
CH
3
H
H
H
CH
3
R
Mg+2
R = phytyl
N
N
N
N
CH
3
O
O
-
O
O
O
-
C H
3
C H
3
CH
2
C H
3
CH
3
H
H
H
Mg+2
Chlorophyll Pheophytin Chlorophyllin
N
N
N
N
CH
3
O
O O
O
O
C H
3
C H
3
CH
2
C H
3
CH
3
H
H
H
CH
3
R
R = phytyl
Mineral as protein and nucleic acid
component
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cystine
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GENERAL BODY FUNCTIONS OF
MINERAL
BUILDING/FORMATION
• Minerals are essential for
building bones, teeth and
soft tissues (Ca, P, Mg, S, F)
• Blood component and
formation (Fe)
REGULATING
• Maintain osmotic pressure,
acid-base balance
• Enzyme systems
(component & activator)
• Normal nerve and muscle
function
• Important for metabolic
process

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The Structure of Myoglobin
Myoglobin (MW= 17,000) is the pigment in muscle tissue,
whereas hemoglobin (MW= 68,000) is the heme pigment in blood
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Forms of
Myoglobin in
Meat
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Minerals in Foods
• The mineral content of plants can vary
dramatically depending upon the minerals in
the soil where the plant is found.
• The maturity of the vegetable, fruit, or grain
can affect the mineral content.
Mineral Bioavailability
• The GI tract absorbs a much smaller
proportion of minerals than vitamins.
• Once absorbed, excess minerals are difficult
for the body to flush out.
• The body adjusts mineral absorption in
relation to needs.
Mineral Bioavailability
• Some minerals compete for absorption sites.
Mega dosing with one mineral can impede
absorption of another.
• High-fiber diets reduce absorption of iron,
calcium, zinc, and magnesium.
• Phytate (a component of whole grains) binds
minerals and carries them out of the intestine
unabsorbed.
• Oxalate (found in spinach) binds calcium,
reducing its absorption.
Mineral Bioavailability
Similarities of Mineral to Vitamins
• Do not contribute energy (calories) to the
diet
• Have diverse functions within the body
• Work with enzymes to facilitate chemical
reactions
• Required in the diet in very small amounts

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Differences from Vitamins
• Whereas vitamins are organic
compounds, minerals are inorganic
compounds
• Unlike vitamins, some minerals
contribute to the building of body
structures
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SODIUM
• Functions
– Fluid balance
– Nerve impulse transmission
• Food sources; recommended intake
– Salt
– Processed and convenience foods
– Limit to 2,400 milligrams/day (DV)
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Hypertension: High blood pressure
• Increases risk for heart disease, stroke, kidney
disease
–Sodium
• Can increase blood pressure in some people
–Other dietary factors
• Increase BP: chloride
• Decrease BP: calcium, magnesium,
potassium

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Intake & Sources
• NO DRI
• Minimum requirements = 500 mg
• Daily Value = 2400 mg
• Table salt (Sodium Chloride)
– 1 tsp = 2300 mg sodium
• Processed foods- those that are canned,
cured, pickled & boxed
– 75% of dietary intake
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POTASSIUM
• Functions of potassium
– Muscle contraction
– Nerve impulse transmission
– Fluid balance
– May lower blood pressure
– Protein synthesis
– Fluid balance
– Critical for maintaining heartbeat
• Dietary Recommendations
– DV=3500 mg
– NOT less than 2000 mg/day
• Food sources of potassium
– Unprocessed foods: fruits, vegetables,
grains;
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K in blood: too high/too low

• Hypokalemia
– Potassium depletion may be due to vomiting,
diarrhea, or diuretics
– Symptoms include muscle weakness, loss of
appetite, confusion
– Severe: disrupt heart rhythms--can be fatal
• Hyperkalemia
– Due to malfunctioning kidneys or excess of IV K
– Can slow or stop the heart
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What Processing Does to
Sodium and Potassium Contents of Foods
Milk (whole)
Unprocessed
Peach pie
Processed
Canned,
cream corn
Instant
pudding
Oat cereal
Fresh peaches
Milks
Chipped beef
Vegetables
Fresh corn
Meats
Roast beef
Fruits
Rolled oats
Grains
Sodium
Potassium
Key:
Potassium Food Sources and
Recommended Intake
• Fresh vegetables and fruits.
– Especially potatoes, spinach, melons, and
bananas.
• Fresh meat, milk, coffee, and tea also contain
some potassium.
Food Sources of Potassium
CHLORIDE
• Functions of chloride
– Fluid balance
– Hydrochloric acid (stomach acid)
• Dietary Recommendations
– DV=3,400 mg
• Food sources of chloride
– Table salt
– chloride content = 1.5 x sodium content

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Chloride Deficiency

• Hypochloremia
• Frequent vomiting
– bulimia nervosa
• Metabolic alkalosis
– high blood pH
– due to repeated vomiting, low consumption of
fluid and minerals, dehydration
– cause abnormal heart rhythm, drop in blood flow
to brain, decreased oxygen delivery to tissues,
abnormal metabolic activity
• Lost of appetite

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Toxicity Symptoms
• Normally harmless
• Disturbed acid-base balance
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CALCIUM
• Functions
– Bone structure
• osteoblasts and osteoclasts
– Blood clotting
– Nerve impulse transmission, muscle contraction
• Regulation of Blood Calcium Levels
• Food sources
– Milk and dairy products
– Green vegetables, tofu, fortified foods
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Nutritional Problems of Ca
Deficiency
Symptoms
• Stunted growth in
children
• Bone loss
(osteoporosis) in
adults
Toxicity
Symptoms
• Excess is usually
excreted so toxicity
is rare

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Calcium Absorption
• Between 25 to 75 percent of dietary calcium.
• High during pregnancy and infancy.
• Low during old age.
• Requires adequate levels of vitamin D.
• Inversely related to calcium intake.
Calcium Absorption
• Phytates (in nuts, seeds, grains) decrease absorption.
• Oxalates decrease absorption.
• High levels of phosphorus and magnesium decrease
absorption.
• Wheat bran decreases absorption (other dietary fibers
do not seem to decrease absorption).
• Low estrogen levels after menopause decrease
absorption.
• Calcium from supplements taken between meals and
at lower doses of 500 milligrams or less assists in
absorption.
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DRI & Sources
• DRI = 1000 mg – 1300 mg
• Foods
–Milk/milk products
–Dark green vegetables
–Some fish & shellfish
–Tofu & other legumes
–Fortified foods (i.e.: juices)
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BIOAVAILABILITY
• Absorption (binders)
– Phytic Acid (calcium, iron, zinc, magnesium)
• Oatmeal & Whole grains
– Oxalic Acid (calcium & iron)
• Beet greens & spinach)
– Fiber
• Excretion
– Protein
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Phosphorous
• 2
nd
most abundant mineral in the body (85%
combined with calcium)
• Functions:
–Structure of bones & teeth
–Necessary for growth (DNA)
–Energy metabolism (ATP)
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NUTRITIONAL PROBLEMS
Deficiency
symptoms
• Muscle weakness
• Bone pain
– Phosphorous
deficiency is rare
– Found widely in
foods
Toxicity symptoms

• May cause calcium
excretion and hinder
absorption
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DRI & Sources
• DRI = 700 mg
• Foods
–Meat, poultry & fish
–Dairy products
–Processed foods
–Soda

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Deficiency & Toxicity Symptoms
• Deficiency symptoms:
–Muscle cramps
–Mental apathy
–Loss of appetite
• Toxicity symptoms:
–High blood pressure
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DASH = “Dietary Approaches to Stop
Hypertension”

• High intake of fruits and vegetables (8-10
sv/day)
• Low-fat daily products (2-3 sv/day)
• Low-fat, low-saturated fat, low-
cholesterol
• Sodium less than 2400 mg/day


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Sulfur
• Functions:
–Present in all proteins (structure)
–Part of biotin & thiamin
–Part of insulin
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IRON
• essential nutrient
• mostly found in
– hemoglobin
• carrier of oxygen
– myoglobin
• protein in muscles, making oxygen available
• iron balance is critical
• deficiency
– fatigue and anemia

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IRON
• red meats, fish, poultry,
eggs, legumes are good
sources

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Iron in Selected Foods
Key:
Fruits
Milk and milk products
Legumes, nuts, seeds
Meats
Best sources per kcalorie
Breads and cereals
Vegetables
IRON
Meats (red), legumes (brown),
and some vegetables (green)
make the greatest contributions
of iron to the diet.
RDA for
women
51+
RDA for
women
19–50
RDA
for
men
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ZINC
• cofactor for many enzymes affecting growth
and digestion
• deficiency
– growth retardation
– sexual immaturity
– impaired immune response
• protein containing foods are a good source of
zinc
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Zinc in Selected Foods
Label
Key:
Fruits
Milk and milk products
Legumes, nuts, seeds
Meats
Best sources per kcalorie
Breads and cereals
Vegetables
ZINC
Meat, fish, and poultry (red) are
concentrated sources of zinc.
Milk (white) and legumes
(brown) contain some zinc.
RDA
for
women
RDA
for
men
Micrograms RAE
Food Serving size (kcalories)
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IODINE
• converted to iodide in GI tract
• essential component of thyroid hormone
– regulates temperature, reproduction, growth, cell
production
• deficiency
– goiter: enlarged thyroid gland
– cretinism
• during pregnancy
• irreversible mental and physical retardation
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IODINE
• world’s ocean and iodized salt are best
sources
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Selenium
• essential antioxidant nutrient
• deficiency associated with heart disease
• seafood, meats, whole grains, vegetables
– dependent on soil content
• toxicity
– loss and brittleness of hair and nails
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Copper
• important player in several enzyme reactions
• deficiency is rare
• food sources are legumes, whole grains, nuts,
shellfish, seeds
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Manganese
• cofactor for many enzymes that metabolize
carbs, lipids and amino acids
• deficiency is rare
• too much can affect the nervous system
• found in nuts, whole grains, leafy veggies


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Fluoride
• presence makes
– bones stronger
– teeth more resistant to
tooth decay
• fluoridated water is
best source
– most bottled water is
lacking
• too much can damage
teeth
Key:
< 49%
50% – 74%
> 75%
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