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Heat Transfer Theory

Introduction

The heat lost by the hot medium is equal to the amount
of heat gained by the cold medium, except for losses to
the surroundings.

There must be a temperature difference between the two
media for heat transfer to take place.



Fundamentals of Heat Transfer Theory
Three basic natural laws of physics:

Heat will always be transferred from a hot medium to a
cold medium, until equilibrium is reached.


Modes of Heat Transfer

Three modes:
Radiation = Electromagnetic waves
Conduction = Molecular or atomic vibrations
Convection = Transport of small mass elements
Convection
Is the most efficient way of transporting heat







This is what we want in the heat exchanger
Flow Principles: Laminar
Parabolic velocity profile:
friction close to wall -> lower velocity
centre of tube -> higher velocity
Low velocity and low Reynolds number -> low pressure drop
Distinct parallel fluid layers -> no mixing between layers
Only conduction -> poor heat transfer efficiency
Flow profile Velocity profile
Nearly constant velocity profile
High velocity and high Reynolds number -> high pressure drop
Turbulent flow -> cleaning effect -> less fouling
No orderly flow -> mixing of fluid mass elements
Mainly convection -> high heat transfer efficiency
Flow Principles: Turbulent
Flow profile Velocity profile
Even in turbulent flow, there is always a layer closest to the wall with
laminar film where heat is transferred only by conduction
Flow Principles: Turbulent
Plate pattern
Turbulent flow
Herring bone pattern -> many
contact points where the fluid
is forced to turn direction ->
induced turbulence ->
convection -> high heat
transfer efficiency
Cleaning effect
High pressure drop
Laminar Film
Thickness of the laminar film depends on
Fluid velocity
Fluid viscosity
Plate pattern

The thinner the laminar film, the less resistance to heat transfer,
the more efficient heat exchanger
Two heat exchanger types
Direct

Principle: Product and service medium are in direct contact
Example: Water and air in a cooling tower


Indirect

Principle: Product and service medium are separated by a wall
Example: Hot water and product in a plate heat exchanger
Counter-current v.s Co-current
Counter current flow:
medium driving force all over plate
possible with crossing temperatures
larger LMTD -> smaller area
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T
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Co current flow:
high driving force in beginning
very low in the end
better control of wall temperature
lower pressure drop in
condensing duties
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2out

T
1out

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2in

T
1in

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1in