Bad smell in codes – Part 1

If it stinks change it.

Presented By:
Fuad Bin Omar
fuad@code71.com www.code71.com

Rashed Kibria
rashed@code71.com www.code71.com

Smells to be covered
•Duplicated code •Long method •Long parameter list •Divergent change •Shotgun surgery

Duplicated Code
Smell • Same code structure in more than one place. Refactor Extract method and invoke it from both the places.

Extract Method
• You have a code fragment that can be grouped together. • Turn the fragment into a method whose name explains the purpose of the method.

Extract Method (Contd.)
void printOwing() { printBanner(); //print details System.out.println ("name: " + _name); System.out.println ("amount " + getOutstanding()); }

Extract Method (Contd.)
void printOwing() { printBanner(); printDetails(getOutstanding()); } void printDetails (double outstanding) { System.out.println ("name: " + _name); System.out.println ("amount " + outstanding); }

Duplicated Code
Smell • same expression in two sibling subclasses Refactor • Extract method in both classes. • Pull up field.

Pull Up Field
• Two subclasses have the same field. • Move the field to the superclass.

Pull Up Field (Contd.)

Duplicated Code
Smell • Code is similar but not the same Refactor: • Use Extract Method to separate the similar bits from the different bits. • Use Form Template Method.

Form template method
• You have two methods in subclasses that perform similar steps in the same order, yet the steps are different. • Get the steps into methods with the same signature, so that the original methods become the same. Then you can pull them up.

Form Template Method (Contd.)

Duplicated Code
Smell • Methods do the same thing with a different algorithm Refactor: • Choose the clearer of the two algorithms Use • Use Substitute Algorithm.

Substitute Algorithm
• You want to replace an algorithm with one that is clearer. • Replace the body of the method with the new algorithm.

Substitute Algorithm(Contd.)
String foundPerson(String[] people) { for (int i = 0; i < people.length; i++) { if (people[i].equals ("Don")){ return "Don"; } if (people[i].equals ("John")){ return "John"; } if (people[i].equals ("Kent")){ return "Kent"; } } return ""; }

Substitute Algorithm (Contd.)
String foundPerson(String[] people) { List candidates = Arrays.asList(new String[] {"Don", "John", "Kent"}); for (int i=0; i<people.length; i++) if (candidates.contains(people[i])) return people[i]; return ""; }

Duplicated Code
Smell • Duplicated code in two unrelated class. Refactor: • Use Extract Class in one class. • Use the new component to the other. • Decide where the method makes sense.

Extract Class
• You have one class doing work that should be done by two. • Create a new class and move the relevant fields and methods from the old class into the new class.

Extract Class (Contd.)

Long method
• Object program having short methods live best and longest. • Little methods are the most valuable. • Longer methods are difficult to understand.

Long method
• Give methods a good name. • Whenever you feel the need to comment something make it a method.
– Group of lines – Even if it is a single line – Even if method call is longer than code itself. – Method length is not the key here. – What the method does and how it does it is important.

Long method
• Extract Method

Long method
Smell Use of temporary variable. Refactor Replace temp with query.

Replace temp with query • You are using a temporary variable to hold the result of an expression. • Extract the expression into a method. Replace all references to the temp with the expression. The new method can then be used in other methods

Replace temp with query
double basePrice = _quantity * _itemPrice; if (basePrice > 1000) return basePrice * 0.95; else return basePrice * 0.98;

Replace temp with query
if (basePrice() > 1000) return basePrice() * 0.95; else return basePrice() * 0.98; ... ... double basePrice() { return _quantity * _itemPrice; }

Long method
Smell
Methods with long list of parameters. Refactor Introduce Parameter Object Preserve Whole Object Method with method Object

Introduce Parameter Object • You have a group of parameters that naturally go together. • Replace them with an object.

Introduce Parameter Object

Preserve whole object
• You are getting several values from an object and passing these values as parameters in a method call. • Send the whole object instead.

Preserve whole object
int low = daysTempRange().getLow(); int high = daysTempRange().getHigh(); withinPlan = plan.withinRange(low, high);

Preserve whole object
withinPlan = plan.withinRange(daysTempRange());

Replace method with method object
• You have a long method that uses local variables in such a way that you cannot apply Extract Method • Turn the method into its own object so that all the local variables become fields on that object. You can then decompose the method into other methods on the same object.

Replace method with method object
class Order { double price() { double primaryBasePrice; double secondaryBasePrice; double tertiaryBasePrice; // long computation; } }

Replace method with method object

Long method
Smell • Too many conditions and loops Refactor • With loops, extract the loop and the code within the loop into its own method. • Use Decompose Conditional.

Decompose Conditional
• You have a complicated conditional (if-then-else) statement. • Extract methods from the condition, then part, and else parts

Decompose Conditional
if (date.before (SUMMER_START) || date.after(SUMMER_END)) charge = quantity * _winterRate + _winterServiceCharge; else charge = quantity * _summerRate;

Decompose Conditional
if (notSummer(date)) charge = winterCharge(quantity); else charge = summerCharge (quantity);

Long Parameter List
Smell • A method call requires passing long list of parameters. Refactor • Use Replace Parameter with Method, Preserve whole object or Introduce Parameter Object.

Replace Parameter With Method
int basePrice = _quantity * _itemPrice; discountLevel = getDiscountLevel(); double finalPrice = discountedPrice (basePrice,discountLevel);

int basePrice = _quantity * _itemPrice; double finalPrice = discountedPrice(basePrice);

Divergent Change
Smell • One class is commonly changed in different ways for different reasons. Refactor • Use Extract class by identifying everything that changes for a particular cause and put them all together.

Shotgun Surgery
Smell
• A small changes in the code force changes in different classes.

Refactor
• Use Move Method and Move Field to put all the changes into a single class. • If no current class looks like a good candidate, create one. • use Inline Class to bring a whole bunch of behavior together.

Move Method • A method is, or will be, using or used by more features of another class than the class on which it is defined. • Create a new method with a similar body in the class it uses most. Either turn the old method into a simple delegation, or remove it altogether.

Introduce Parameter Object

Move Field • A field is, or will be, used by another class more than the class on which it is defined. • Create a new field in the target class, and change all its users.

Introduce Parameter Object

To be continued..

References
1. Refactoring: Improving the Design of Existing Code By Martin Fowler, Kent Beck, John Brant, William Opdyke, Don Roberts 2. www.refactoring.com

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