How does the Internet Work?

Coky Fauzi Alfi, SE

What Is the Internet?
It is the largest computer system in the world, consisting of thousands of connected networks. A network is a collection of computers, from two to thousands that are linked using special rules called protocols. When computers are connected to the Internet, they are able to communicate and share information.

Try define:internet at Google

Terminology: Internet vs. Web
The Internet and the World Wide Web are not synonymous: the Internet is a collection of interconnected computer networks, linked by copper wires, fiber-optic cables, wireless connections, etc.; the Web is a collection of interconnected documents and other resources, linked by hyperlinks and URLs.

History of the Internet

• http://computerhistory.org/exhibits/internet_history/ • http://www.isoc.org/internet/history/brief.shtml • http://www.zakon.org/robert/internet/timeline/

How Does It Work?

How Can Users Access the Internet?

How Can Users Access the Internet?

What Is the Internet Infrastructure?
• • • • • • • Regular Modem Cable modem or cable network Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) Fiberoptic cable Wireless Satellite Cell phone

Basic Simple Network

Basic Local Area Network

Basic Wide Area Network

How Does the DNS Work?
The domain name system (DNS) will take care of the translation of a domain name into an IP address or vice versa. For example, if a user were to type the URL http://www.raritanval.edu, the DNS would translate it into an equivalent IP address of 192.231.207.100.

International Domain Names
Domain names outside the United States are, for example, as follows: Australia = au, India = in, Japan = jp, China = cn, United Kingdom = uk, South Africa = za. A domain for a university in Japan could be ftp.meiji.ac.jp, for example, where the domain ac stands for academic (college or university), analogous to edu in the United States, to denote colleges and universities.

Top-Level Domains
.com (commercial) .edu (higher education) .net (networking companies) .org (nonprofit organizations) .gov (U.S. federal government) .mil (U.S. military) .int (international treaties)

New Top-Level Domains
.aero (air-transport industry) .biz (business) .coop (cooperatives) .info (information) .museum (museum) .name (for registration by individuals) .pro (accountants, lawyers, physicians, etc) .tv (television)

PANDI
PANDI (Pengelola Nama Domain Internet Indonesia) adalah badan hukum yang dibentuk oleh perwakilan dari komunitas teknologi informasi dan telah memenuhi syarat sebagai badan hukum di Indonesia. PANDI memiliki maksud dan tujuan untuk mengembangkan dan menyediakan jasa layanan yang lain terkait dengan nama domain.

Available Domain Names for .id
• .CO.ID komersial, badan usaha dan sejenisnya • .NET.ID penyedia jasa telekomunikasi yang berlisensi • .AC.ID akademik, universitas, perguruan tinggi dan sejenisnya • .SCH.ID sekolah • .GO.ID institusi pemerintah dan sejenisnya • .MIL.ID instansi militer • .OR.ID organisasi selain organisasi di atas • .WEB.ID pribadi atau komunitas

Common Uses of the Internet
• • • • • • • E-mail The World Wide Web Remote access Collaboration File sharing Streaming media Voice telephony (VoIP)

Try define:email at Google

Basic Concepts of E-mail

Computer-Based vs. Web-Based Email

Computer-based email stores your incoming messages on a server until you are ready to collect them. Once you download the messages, they are deleted from the server and stored on your PC. With web-based email, you use your internet browser to go to the email provider's site, then log in with a user name and password. The email provider stores all your messages for you.

Computer-Based Email
• • • • • • Outlook (www.microsoft.com/outlook) Outlook Express (www.microsoft.com/outlook) Entourage Mail Thunderbird (www.mozilla.org/thunderbird) Eudora (www.eudora.com)

Web-Based Email
• • • • Yahoo mail (http://mail.yahoo.com) Gmail (http://gmail.google.com) MSN Hotmail (www.hotmail.com) .Mac (www.mac.com)

E-Mail Server System
• SMTP server, where SMTP stands for Simple Mail Transfer Protocol. The SMTP server handles outgoing mail. • POP3 server or an IMAP server, POP3 stands for Post Office Protocol and IMAP stands for Internet Mail Access Protocol, both of which handle incoming mail.

World Wide Web
The World Wide Web (commonly shortened to the Web) is a system of interlinked, hypertext documents accessed via the Internet. With a web browser, a user views web pages that may contain text, images, videos, and other multimedia and navigates between them using hyperlinks.

Try define:world wide web at Google

WWW Tools
• • • • Web Server Web Page Web Browser Web Address

Remote Access

A service which makes it possible to connect to a network or the Internet from a distant location

Remote Access Tools

• Virtual Private Network (VPN) • Telecommunication Network (Telnet) • Secure Shell (SSH)

Collaborative Software

Collaborative software (also referred to as groupware or workgroup support systems) is software designed to help people involved in a common task achieve their goals.

The Three Levels of Collaboration

• Electronic communication tools • Electronic conferencing tools • Collaborative management tools

Electronic Communication Tools
• • • • • • • synchronous conferencing e-mail faxing voice mail Wikis Web publishing revision control

Electronic Conferencing Tools
• • • • • • • • Internet forums Online chat Instant Messaging Telephony Video conferencing Data conferencing Application sharing Electronic meeting systems

Collaborative Management Tools
• electronic calendars (also called time management software) • project management systems • workflow systems • knowledge management systems • prediction markets • extranet systems (sometimes also known as 'project extranets') • social software systems • online spreadsheets

File Sharing

File sharing refers to the providing and receiving of digital files over a network, usually following the peer-to-peer (P2P) model, where the files are stored on and served by personal computers of the users. Most people who engage in file sharing on the Internet both provide (upload) files and receive files (download).

File-Sharing Program
• • • • USENET BitTorrent Limewire Podcast

Streaming Media
Technical term for digital audio or video transmissions via the Internet. The sound and image data are sent as a data stream to the subscriber.

List of Streaming Media Systems
• • • • Pandora (music service) QuickTime Broadcaster VideoLAN Winamp a freeware media player for Microsoft Windows

Voice Telephony (VoIP)
Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) is a technology used to transmit voice conversations over a data network using the Internet Protocol.

VoIP Software
• • • • • • AOL Instant Messenger Google Talk iChat AV Skype Windows Live Messenger Yahoo! Messenger

Internet Hosting Service

An Internet hosting service is a service that runs Internet servers, allowing organizations and individuals to serve content to the Internet or in newbie terms a way for you to keep your website live and viewable on the internet.

Types of Hosting

1. Full-featured hosting 2. Limited or application-specific hosting

Full-featured Hosting

• Dedicated hosting service • Virtual private server • Colocation facilities

Limited or Application-specific Hosting

• • • • •

Web hosting service E-mail hosting service DNS hosting service Game servers Wiki farms

The Process for Hosting a Web Site
• • • • • Register domain name Find an Hosting Provider Find an appropriate server Develop graphic and HTML content Upload to web server using FTP to transfer files

What To Consider When Choosing a Hosting Provider
• • • • • Storage Space and DataTransfer Reliability Technical Support Added Features Pricing Structure

End

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