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PISMP 2013

Definition 1: Rational number

A rational number () is any number which

can be written as:

a/b

where a and b are integers and b0.

EXAMPLE OF rational numbers

:

101;217;-1-3;1020;-36(2)

BOTH numerators and denominators are

integers.

On the other hand, all integers are rational

numbers, because they can be written with a

denominator of 1.

Definition 2: Irrational numbers

Irrational numbers (') are numbers that

cannot be written as a fraction with the

numerator and denominator as integers.

Examples of irrational numbers:

These are not rational numbers, because

either the numerator or the denominator is

not an integer.

.... , , 52 1 , , 43 , 3 , 2 e

RATIONAL OR IRRATIONAL

Square Root of 2

If you draw a square of size

"1",

what is the distance across the

diagonal?

The answer is the square root of 2, which is

1.4142135623730950...(etc)

2

Famous Irrational Numbers

Pi is a famous irrational number. People

have calculated Pi to over a quadrillion

decimal places and still there is no

pattern. The first few digits look like this:

3.1415926535897932384626433832795

(and more ...)

The number e (Euler's Number) is

another famous irrational number. People

have also calculated e to lots of decimal

places without any pattern showing. The

first few digits look like this:

2.7182818284590452353602874713527

(and more ...)

The Golden Ratio is an irrational number.

The first few digits look like this:

1.61803398874989484820... (and more

...)

Many square roots, cube roots, etc are

also irrational numbers. Examples:

3

1.7320508075688772935274463415059

(etc)

99

9.9498743710661995473447982100121

(etc)

But 4 = 2 (rational), and 9 = 3 (rational) ...

... so not all roots are irrational.

Famous Irrational Numbers

Multiplying Irrational Numbers

=

2

is irrational

But 2 2 = 2 is rational

So be careful ... multiplying irrational numbers

might result in a rational number!

Decimal numbers

any rational number can be written as a

decimal number

but not all decimal numbers are rational

numbers

Decimal numbers

Types of decimal numbers are rational numbers:

1. Decimal numbers that end (or terminate).

Example, the fraction 4/10 can be written as 0,4.

2 Decimal numbers that have a repeating single digit.

Example, the fraction 1/3 can be written as or as

The dot and bar notations are equivalent and both

represent recurring 3's, i.e. = =0.333....

3 Decimal numbers that have a recurring pattern of

multiple digits. For example, the fraction 2/11 can

also be written as . The bar represents a

recurring pattern of 1 and 8's i.e. =0,181818....

3 . 0

3 . 0

3 . 0

3 . 0

18 . 0

18 . 0

Converting terminating decimals into

rational numbers

A decimal number has an integer part and a

fractional part.

For example, 10.589 has an integer part of 10 and

a fractional part of 0.589 because

10+0.589=10.589.

The fractional part can be written as a rational

number, i.e. with a numerator and denominator

that are integers.

Each digit after the decimal point is a fraction

with a denominator in increasing powers of 10.

Example

Therefore, 10.589=10+5/10+8/100+9/1000

=10000/1000+500/1000+80/1000+9/1000

=10589/1000

Converting recurring decimals into

rational numbers

When the decimal is a recurring decimal, a bit

more work is needed to write the fractional

part of the decimal number as a fraction.

Eg: 0.333333.., 0.125125125..

Example

Write in the form a/b (where a and b are

integers).

Soln: Define an equation

Let x=0.33333...(1)

Multiply by 10 on both sides

10x=3.33333...(2)

(2) (1)

9x=3

Simplify

x=3/9=1/3

3 . 0

Example 3: Converting decimal

numbers to fractions

Write as a rational fraction.

2 3 4 . 5

Rational between 2 rational numbers

To find a rational number between 2 given

positive numbers is to find the average

between the 2 numbers

Eg; find a rational number between

is a rational between

4

1

3

1

and

24

7

2

4

1

3

1

24

7

4

1

3

1

and

McKays Theorem

Finding a rational number between two given

positive rational numbers just by adding up

the numerator and the denominator,

Eg: find a rational number between

is between .

8

1

5

1

and

13

2

8 5

1 1

13

2

8

1

5

1

and

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