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Rational and irrational numbers

MTE3101 Mengenal nombor


PISMP 2013
Definition 1: Rational number
A rational number () is any number which
can be written as:
a/b
where a and b are integers and b0.

EXAMPLE OF rational numbers
:
101;217;-1-3;1020;-36(2)
BOTH numerators and denominators are
integers.
On the other hand, all integers are rational
numbers, because they can be written with a
denominator of 1.


Definition 2: Irrational numbers
Irrational numbers (') are numbers that
cannot be written as a fraction with the
numerator and denominator as integers.

Examples of irrational numbers:


These are not rational numbers, because
either the numerator or the denominator is
not an integer.

.... , , 52 1 , , 43 , 3 , 2 e
RATIONAL OR IRRATIONAL


Square Root of 2
If you draw a square of size
"1",
what is the distance across the
diagonal?
The answer is the square root of 2, which is
1.4142135623730950...(etc)

2
Famous Irrational Numbers
Pi is a famous irrational number. People
have calculated Pi to over a quadrillion
decimal places and still there is no
pattern. The first few digits look like this:
3.1415926535897932384626433832795
(and more ...)
The number e (Euler's Number) is
another famous irrational number. People
have also calculated e to lots of decimal
places without any pattern showing. The
first few digits look like this:
2.7182818284590452353602874713527
(and more ...)
The Golden Ratio is an irrational number.
The first few digits look like this:
1.61803398874989484820... (and more
...)
Many square roots, cube roots, etc are
also irrational numbers. Examples:
3
1.7320508075688772935274463415059
(etc)
99
9.9498743710661995473447982100121
(etc)
But 4 = 2 (rational), and 9 = 3 (rational) ...
... so not all roots are irrational.
Famous Irrational Numbers

Multiplying Irrational Numbers

=
2
is irrational
But 2 2 = 2 is rational
So be careful ... multiplying irrational numbers
might result in a rational number!

Decimal numbers

any rational number can be written as a
decimal number
but not all decimal numbers are rational
numbers

Decimal numbers
Types of decimal numbers are rational numbers:
1. Decimal numbers that end (or terminate).
Example, the fraction 4/10 can be written as 0,4.
2 Decimal numbers that have a repeating single digit.
Example, the fraction 1/3 can be written as or as
The dot and bar notations are equivalent and both
represent recurring 3's, i.e. = =0.333....
3 Decimal numbers that have a recurring pattern of
multiple digits. For example, the fraction 2/11 can
also be written as . The bar represents a
recurring pattern of 1 and 8's i.e. =0,181818....

3 . 0
3 . 0

3 . 0
3 . 0
18 . 0
18 . 0
Converting terminating decimals into
rational numbers
A decimal number has an integer part and a
fractional part.
For example, 10.589 has an integer part of 10 and
a fractional part of 0.589 because
10+0.589=10.589.
The fractional part can be written as a rational
number, i.e. with a numerator and denominator
that are integers.
Each digit after the decimal point is a fraction
with a denominator in increasing powers of 10.

Example
Therefore, 10.589=10+5/10+8/100+9/1000
=10000/1000+500/1000+80/1000+9/1000
=10589/1000
Converting recurring decimals into
rational numbers
When the decimal is a recurring decimal, a bit
more work is needed to write the fractional
part of the decimal number as a fraction.
Eg: 0.333333.., 0.125125125..
Example
Write in the form a/b (where a and b are
integers).
Soln: Define an equation
Let x=0.33333...(1)
Multiply by 10 on both sides
10x=3.33333...(2)
(2) (1)
9x=3
Simplify
x=3/9=1/3

3 . 0
Example 3: Converting decimal
numbers to fractions
Write as a rational fraction.


2 3 4 . 5
Rational between 2 rational numbers
To find a rational number between 2 given
positive numbers is to find the average
between the 2 numbers
Eg; find a rational number between



is a rational between

4
1
3
1
and
24
7
2
4
1
3
1

24
7
4
1
3
1
and
McKays Theorem
Finding a rational number between two given
positive rational numbers just by adding up
the numerator and the denominator,
Eg: find a rational number between



is between .
8
1
5
1
and
13
2
8 5
1 1

13
2

8
1
5
1
and