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CHAPTER 6

FLOORS, WALLS AND
WINDOWS
HHB3013 CHILD CARE CENTRE OPERATIONS
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TOPIC LEARNING
OUTCOMES
INTRODUCTION
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SELECTING AND CARING FOR HARD
FLOOR
NONRESILIENT FLOORS

Non-resilient flooring is found most often in high traffic areas and
areas where excessive dampness or water would damage
carpeting.
Stone
Marble is the best known of the natural stones, but travertine,
granite, slate, terrazzo and other types of stone are also used in
commercial flooring.
Terrazzo – which has natural
sheen and is resistant to wear,
is advertised as needing no
artificial or applied finish?
Maintaining Stone Floors:
Dust removal is the most basic aspect of stone floor care. Dust
especially that from sandy soil can literally grind off the surface
of the floor.
Daily sweeping and dust mopping with a no oily dusting
compound is essential.
A no rinse stone soap is effective.
Some surfaces can be spray buffed a procedure in which the
floor is sprayed with a buffing spray solution, and then buffed
with a floor machine equipped with pads or brushes.
Other surfaces will react better to dry buffing or burnishing,
which polishes through the friction create by high speed buffing.
Concrete
All concrete floors require sealing.
Concrete floors should be swept,
then thoroughly mopped and
vacuumed with a wet pick-up prior
to sealing. Ground in soils must be
scrubbed.
Ceramic
Ceramic flooring or vitreous
flooring refers to flooring
materials that have been made
of some clay product and fired
in a specialized, very hot oven
called a kiln to produce a hard,
stone like quality. Common
types include tiles, brick, glazed
tiles and paving stone.
Brick
Limestone Mosaics
Glass Floor
Asphalt Tile Cork Tile
Maintaining Ceramic Floors:
Sweeping and mopping with a tile cleaner should keep glazed
tile floors looking shiny and clean.
It should be dusted often because dust will scratch and
abrade the shine.
Unglazed floors such as terra cotta, brick and paving stones,
should be swept.
RESILIENT FLOORING
Resilient flooring such as wood can be showcased in the
public space.
Wood
Wood floors must be sealed and
finished. Various techniques are used
ranging from applications of tong oil
and wax to polyurethane and liquids
acrylics. Varnish or shellac type
chemicals should be avoided, since they
can yellow and peel.
Maintaining Wood Floors:

Daily maintenance consists of frequent sweeping and dusting.
Wood floor sealed with polyurethanes also require periodic
damp mopping.
Older wood floors may need a biannual or annual treatment
wit paste wax and butter.
Wood floors should never be cleaned with a wet mop or have
standing water on them.
The only way to clean deeply, stained wood or damaged wood
is to have the floor sanded. (Made smooth with sandpaper).
VINYL FLOORING
Maintaining Vinyl Floors:

Daily dusting with a treated mop, treated sparingly, is essential
to avoid damage from abrasion.
Use of a neutral cleaner will prevent the damaging buildup of
alkaline on the floor.
Mopping with special restoration coatings, chemicals that in
most cases can restore the factory shine on some types of vinyl
floors.
RUBBER FLOORING
These floors buff to a high
shine without the use of a
finish or high-speed buffer.
High speed buffing may cause
pad burn, which occurs when
pads on the buffer go through
the finish and mark the floor.
Maintaining rubber floors:

Mild alkaline can be used to clean rubber floors; harsh alkaline
will damage them.
As with all floors, daily dusting and periodic damp mopping
constitute the basics of cleaning.
EQUIPMENT AND SUPPLIES FOR HARD
FLOORS
Scrubbers

The single disc scrubber’s most basic function is to apply the
appropriate solution then scrub or strip the floor. It vacuums up
the dirty solution, leaving an almost dry floor behind. Most are
lightweight and easily portable. These machines are among he
most versatile in the housekeeping department and can handle
any task from scrubbing to buffing and striping floors.
High Speed Buffers

Buffers are available in electric models, battery powered mode
and gas powered. The main problem with the electric models is
the cord.

Floor Pads and Brushes

Most pads used on scrubbers are now made of plastic. Pads are
made from fiber some type of grit and a binder that hold the
pad together. The latest innovation is a crystallization process,
which involves special pads for renewing marble floors.

Sealers and Finishes

Primary sealers are used as the only coating on the floor and
those that are designed to be used in conjunction with a sealer.
Floor safety is also a major part of floor maintenance,
especially in the face of an increasing number of lawsuits
resulting from falls.
Floor Cleaning Methods:

Mopping.

Buffing and Burnishing.

Scrubbing.

Stripping and Refinishing.
THE HOUSEKEEPER’S ROLE IN INTERIOR
DESIGN
Executive housekeepers should be actively involved in assessing
both fabrics and furnishings. They should request fabric
swatches, small fabric samples, and participate in the review of
the model room. The purpose of the model room is to give the
owner, operator, and some department heads and, more and
more frequently, key prospective clients a chance to try out the
new designs and evaluate it. The executive housekeeper should
test-clear the fabrics, finishes, and floors coverings that will be
used.
DESIGN TRENDS
• Like styles in fashion, change frequently.
• To know whether a chain will hole up to heavy usage than to
recognize whether it is Chippendales or art deco.
• How many different styles of furnishings.
• Selection of supplies.
• The calculation of inventory.
• Patterns are used more throughout hotels, and patterns tend
to complement each other.
• Design to surprise or even challenge the guest aesthetically,
most properties aim for a classic look comfort.
WALLS, CEILINGS AND WINDOWS
MATERIALS SELECTION
Durability
•Durability must be weighed differently for the wall
coverings and wall finishes than it is for hard flooring.
• Standards for walls in guest bathrooms public rest room,
pool and spa areas, and kitchen, other areas are more likely
to be painted or wallpapered.
• Wall treatment and any corner that is vulnerable to marks
and scrapes from suitcases and cars.
Ease of Maintenance

• Elements from color and pattern to weight and constructions
can affect ease of maintenance for wall finishes and wall
coverings.
• Hard surfaces such as marble or tile must be finished or sealed
so that they can be cleaned regularly without wearing.
• Both tile and marble are currently the standard choices for any
wall subjects to wetness, humidity, and grease.

Flammability

• Wall coverings, like bedding, must comply with flammability
regulations.
• The specified of the wall coverings, that is, the person who
writes the detailed descriptions of the items, must check local
codes on flammability and toxicity, which vary by city and state.

Suitability

• Like floor, walls have a major impact on the overall design of a
room.
• Its location, climate, and even the standards and
specifications of the operator all influence the selection of wall
finishes and wall coverings.
CARING FOR WALLS AND CEILINGS
Most walls do not require daily maintenance, weekly cleaning
is sufficient.

Only walls in guest bathrooms, public restroom, employee
locker rooms, and locker rooms adjacent to pools and spas or
fitness facilities require daily washing.

Ceilings are cleaned on a quarterly basis or, at least twice a
year.

Ceilings that serve as decorative elements, such as the fabric or
glass ceilings sometimes used to make a design statement in
restaurants, lounges, or bars.
PAINTED SURFACES
Routine Maintenance
• Weekly dusting.
• Check for marks, chips, and scrapes.
• One painting expert recommends a mildly abrasive soap for
removing black marks from walls without damaging paints.
• Bad soils can be removed by saturating the area of stain or soil
with the cleaning solutions and allowing it to penetrate for a few
minutes.
• Where dust and smoke have accumulated, it maybe necessary
to apply a little abrasive powder on a wet sponge or pad.
Deep Cleaning
• For hand washing with a sponge:

Begin from the bottom up to avoid streaks. Clean the lower
half of the wall from one corner to the other.
Rinse the lower half of the wall before the beginning the
upper half. Wipe the wall dry after rinsing.
Clean, rinse, and dry the upper half in the same manner.
Change the solution and the rinse water frequently to insure
good results.
• For washing with a mop:

Work from the top down. Swing the mop from side to side in
rhythmic strokes as far as possible without stepping ahead. Do
not use excess pressure, which could rub soil into the wall.
At the point where side to side cleaning is impossible, swing the
mop in long, vertical arcs from the cleaned upper surface down
to the baseboard. Use a scrub brush for stubborn spots.
Before the cleaning solutions dries on the cleaned areas, use the
rinse mop with the same swinging motion.
Dry the cleaned and rinsed area with a dry mop.
• For wall washing machines:

Work in left to right arcs as far as possible without stepping
ahead.
Change the solution pad when it becomes too soiled. Another
option is to shift the rinse applicators to the detergent
applicator, and the dry pad can be used for rinsing.
After rinsing, dry the cleaned section of wall with the drying
pad.
Equipment and Supplies

• Sponges or mops and pails are all that is necessary for hand
washing. The best sponges are cellulose and about the size of a
brick.
• A telescoping mop handle makes it easier to reach high places on
the wall.
• Wall washing machines are available with a single tank.
• Terry cloth pads are needed for smooth walls.
• A strong alkaline cleaner such as presidium phosphate removes
dirt but may also remove some paint.
• A weak solution should be patch tested on an inconspicuous area
first.
• Synthetic detergents made of sulfonated hydrocarbons are
usually preferable to soap, which may leave residue and hasten
future soiling.
VINYL WALLPAPER
Deep Cleaning

• Manufacturer’s instructions are the starting points for deep
cleaning.
• Should be rinsed thoroughly and dried before moving to the
next section.
• Attendants and supervisors should watch for seams that are
opening up or curling.
Equipment and Supplies

• Brush for scrubbing and low sucking detergent diluted in warm
water should suffice for most cleaning needs.
• A soft, lint free cloth or towel will be needed for drying.
FABRIC PARTITIONS AND ACOUSTICAL WALLS
Routine Maintenance

• Should be inspected closely.
• Setup crews generally handle partitions along their edges;
these are the first areas to show dirt, grease, and smudge marks.
• A brush can be used to keep the bases and edges clean.
• A piece of art gum will remove small spots from unpainted
acoustical walls.
• Colored chalks are ideal for touching up nicks in acoustical
walls.
• Spray paint can be used on painted acoustical walls, taking
care not to fill in the holes, as this lessens sounds absorbency.
Deep Cleaning

• Cleaning should follow the manufacturer’s instructions.
• The best approach is to begin deep cleaning on a small
inconspicuous piece of the partition or wall.
• Should be allowed to dry thoroughly before assessing whether
there has been discoloration, shrinkage, and sagging, or other
damage.
Equipment and Supplies

• Needed for routine cleaning is a vacuum with soft nozzle
brush.
• Some fabric’s cleaners are sold with their own soft brush
attachment.
• Small sponge or soft brush will be needed for deep cleaning.
TILE WALLS
Routine Maintenance

• Walls in public rest rooms, guest bathrooms, locker rooms, pool
and spa areas must be washed daily with a tile cleaner or all-
purpose cleaner.
• Walls separating shower stalls in pool or spa areas and
employer shower must be cleaned daily with a disinfectant.
• In most cases, a mild alkali or synthetic detergent works well.
Deep Cleaning

• Training has to stress the importance of drying the grout in
order to prevent mildew.
• Trained to put the shower curtain in the center or to one side,
pulled across, in order to let air circulate.
Equipment and Supplies

• Wall washing machines usually have brush attachment
available for rougher surfaces.
• As stated above, mild detergents abrasives, grout cleaners, and
whiteners make up the basic cleaning supply list.
• Number one steel wool pads are useful for removing tough
stains such as lipstick or coffee from grout.
OTHER WALL MATERIALS
Cork Wooden
Plastic Laminate
Fiberglass
Glass
Deluxe hotels may occasionally have fabric –covered walls in
special areas to convey a look of unstinting elegance. The high
cost and extreme delicacy of these coverings make them
impractical. Cotton, wool, silk or some combination may be
installs. Delicate fabrics can be vacuumed with a soft brush
nozzle so as not to pull threads or cause the fabric to sag or
pucker.

Encounter wall coverings and finishes ranging from marble to
cork and from wood veneers to brick and stainless steel. A new
process that is applied somewhat like plaster produces a
durable, easy-to-clean wall surface. Since the pigment is mixed
into the wall material during manufacturing, the color
permeates the entire surface.
TYPES OF WINDOW
The Double-Hung Window

It is classic in appearance, offers excellent
control of ventilation. You can raise the lower
sash or lower the upper one. A single-hung
window is similar but only the lower sash
opens.
Casement Window

It hinges on one side and swings
out when you turn a crank (some
are inward-swinging). Because it
opens fully, it affords good
ventilation and is easy to clean.

A Slider

It offers a contemporary appearance.
It's made from two separate sashes-
one is fixed, the other slides in a track.
Half opens for ventilation. A slider is
easy to operate and most types are
particularly weather-tight.

An Awning Window

It hinges at the top and tilts out at
the bottom, providing partial
ventilation. These are often used
above doors or other windows.
Jalousie or Louvered

It is excellent for
ventilation but poor
insulators-they leak a great
deal of air.
A Hopper Window

It hinges at the bottom. A
hopper is normally used for
ventilation above a door or
window, where protected by
eaves.
The Tilt-Turn

It is a fairly new type of
window. It tilts out for
ventilation but also can
be opened fully for
cleaning or as an
emergency escape.
Round-Top

The geometrically-shaped
windows are used as
architectural accents.
A Bow Window

It is made from several
windows positioned side-
by-side to create an arcing
form. Similar to a bay
window, it provides
drama in a room.
A Seamless Bent-Glass

It is a fairly new product that
offers unobstructed views at
the corner of a house.
The Bay Window

It made from a central sash
and two angled side
sashes, is a classic favorite
for expanding a room with
light, views and drama.
Angled side windows are
often operable casements
or double-hung windows.
Glass Block

It is a light-allowing
alternative to conventional
windows, used both in
exterior and interior walls.
Various patterns allow
varying degrees of view or
privacy. Typical sizes are 6,
8 and 12-inch squares and
4 by 8 and 6 by 8
rectangles made for 4-inch-
thick walls.
FURNITURE, FIXTURES AND
EQUIPMENT
Appearance

Large patterns belong in large rooms (small patterns in small
areas). Complementary patterns can be mixed, as long as they
harmonize in term of style and color. Light colors make a room
look bigger, dark colors make a space look smaller. Sometimes
this rule is broken for effect, often to make a small restaurant
look even more elegant and secluded.
Availability

Availability is an important concern, especially when opening a
hotel. The interior designer notifies department heads on the
pre-opening team when the furniture, fixtures and equipment
will be delivered. For every item, no matter how small, must be
checked.

Comfort

Comfort is paramount for guestroom chairs, chairs used in
auditoriums and meeting rooms, and chairs in fine dining
restaurants where it is desirable to have patrons linger.
Cost

The cost are the average life expectancy of the piece, the most
and projected frequency of repairs, the cost of regular
maintenance and the cost of deep cleaning.

Guarantees

This consideration is particularly important to the executive
housekeeper, who will have to invoke the guarantee of any
design element that fails to live up to the manufactures claims.
NATURAL FABRICS
Wool

Fibers from animal coats: Sheep, goats, rabbits, alpacas, llama
Cotton

Fibers from the cotton plant’s seed pod
Silk

Fibers from the cocoon of the silkworm

Linen

Linen is from flax, a bats fiber taken from the stalk of the plant

Hemp, Ramie, and Jute

All of these are similar to linen but the plants are processed
slightly differently.
MANUFACTURED OR MAN MADE FABRICS
Acetate

It is not a strong fiber but can be extruded into fibers of
different diameter and woven into fabrics that have the
luxurious look of silk but do not wear like silk.

Acrylic

It is a fine soft and luxurious fabric with the bulk and hand of
wool. Light weight and springy, this fabric is non-allergenic,
dries quickly, draws moisture away from the body and is
washable.
Latex

It is an elastic fiber made from Latex. It is most often used with
other fibers to create fabrics such as Spandex and foundation
garments.

Nylon

Nylon is stronger yet weighs less than any other commonly used
fiber. It is elastic and resilient and responsive to heat setting.
Nylon fibers are smooth, non-absorbent and dry quickly. Dirt
doesn’t cling to this smooth fiber nor is it weakened by chemicals
and perspiration.
Polyester

Polyester is manufactured in many weights including fiber-fill
used in pillows and upholstery. Threads spun from polyester
fibers are strong, wear exceptionally well, and are used
extensively in home sewing and manufactured sewing.

Rayon

Rayon, from cellulose, has many of the qualities of cotton, a
natural cellulose fiber. Rayon is strong; extremely absorbent,
comes in a variety of qualities and weights, and can be made to
resemble natural fabrics.
Spandex

It is an elastic type fiber that can be stretched many times its
length and then spring back to the original length. Spandex is
more resistant to washing, perspiration, and heat than latex.
DEEP CLEANING OF FABRICS
Vacuuming

Spot Treat

Test For Color Fastness

Test For Shrinkage

Shampoo

Dry Cleaning

Hand Brush Or Vacuum