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Embedded Systems
An embedded system is a combination of
computer hardware and software, either
fixed in capability or programmable, that is
specifically designed for a particular
Industrial machines, automobiles, medical
equipment, cameras, household appliances,
airplanes, vending machines and toys (as
well as the more obvious cellular phone and
PDA) are the possible hosts of an embedded

Physically, embedded systems range from
portable devices such as digital watches and
MP3 players, to large stationary installations
like traffic lights, factory controllers, or the
systems controlling nuclear power plants.
Embedded systems that are programmable
are provided with programming interfaces
and embedded programming is a specialized
It is embedded as part of a complete device
often including hardware and mechanical

The key characteristic is being dedicated to
handle a particular task.
The embedded system is dedicated to
specific tasks, design engineers can optimize
it to reduce the size and cost of the product
and increase the reliability and performance.
Some embedded systems are mass-
produced, benefiting from economies of
Complexity varies from low, with a single
microcontroller chip, to very high with
multiple units, peripherals and networks
mounted inside a large chassis or enclosure.

Examples of Embedded Systems

Based on number of bits
They can be 4-bit, 8-bit,16-bit and 32-bit
The bit description of a microcontroller tells
us about
The size of the data bus,
The word length and
The data bus size of the microcontroller tells
us the number of data bits that the
microcontroller can process at a time.
The word length means the length of the
data that can be stored at a memory location
in the microcontrollers memory.

Based on devices
They are of two types:
Embedded microcontrollers
External microcontrollers
Embedded microcontrollers means that the
microcontroller is buried inside the device. This is
done during the manufacturing process. They cannot
the seen from outside. They are basically one time
programmable. E.g. LCD, Fridge, Air conditioners,
Washing machines etc.
External microcontrollers are not buried inside the
device. They can be programmed number of times.
They can be seen from outside. E.g. the
microcontroller in i3indya development board.
Von Neumann Architecture
Microcontrollers based on the Von-Neumann architecture have a
single data bus that is used to fetch both instructions and data.
Program instructions and data are stored in a common main memory.
When such a controller addresses main memory, it first fetches an
instruction, and then it fetches the data to support the instruction.

Harvard Architecture
The Harvard architecture is a computer architecture with physically
separate storage and signal pathways for instructions and data.

We will be working on Atmega16 microcontroller,
which is a 40-pin IC and belongs to the MegaAVR
category of AVR family.

Some of the features of Atmega16 are:
16KB of Flash memory
512 Bytes of EEPROM
Available in 40-Pin DIP
8- Channel 10-bit ADC
Two 8-bit Timers/Counters
One 16-bit Timer/Counter
4 PWM Channels
In System Programmer (ISP)
Serial USART
SPI Interface
Digital to Analog Comparator.

Robots !!!
A robot is a mechanical or virtual
artificial agent.
In practice, it is usually an electro-
mechanical system which, by its
appearance or movements, conveys
a sense that it has intent or agency
of its own.
The word robot can refer to both
physical robots and virtual software
agents, but the latter are usually
referred to as bots.

There is no consensus on which machines qualify as
robots, but there is general agreement among experts
and the public that robots tend to do some or all of the
following: move around, operate a mechanical arm,
sense and manipulate their environment, and exhibit
intelligent behavior, especially behavior which mimics
humans or animals.
A "Robot" is any automatically operated machine that
replaces human effort, though it may not resemble
human beings in appearance or perform functions in a
humanlike manner.
Robotics is the engineering discipline dealing with the
design, construction, and operation of robots.


Definition Of Motor
That powered by electricity or internal combustion, that
supplies motive power for a vehicle or for some other device.

A device that converts any form of energy into mechanical
energy, especially an internal-combustion engine or an
arrangement of coils and magnets that converts electric
current into mechanical power.
Types of motors

DC Motor
Stepper motor
Servo motor

Stepper motor

DC Motor

Servo motor
Stepper Motor

A stepper motor is an electromechanical
device which converts electrical pulses
into discrete mechanical movements. The
shaft or spindle of a stepper motor
rotates in discrete step increments when
electrical command pulses are applied to
it in the proper sequence.
DC Motor
The simplest DC rotating machine
consists of a single loop of wire
rotating about a fixed axis. The
magnetic field is supplied by the North
and South poles of the magnet.
Rotor is the rotating part;
Stator is the stationary part.


LCD s are all arround us so
liquid crystal displays are very
useful in these days.
It is a kind of display that is
made up of a special matter state
formed using liquid and crystal
both , its a forth state of matter

Pin out
8 data pins D0-D7
RS: Register Select
Data or Command

R/W: Read or Write
E: Enable (Latch data)

RS Register Select
RS = 0 Command Register
RS = 1 Data Register
R/W = 0 Write , R/W = 1 Read
E Enable
Used to latch the data present on the data

D0 D7
Bi-directional data/command pins.
Alphanumeric characters are sent in ASCII

DTMF (Dual-Tone Multi-

The invention of this is attributed to Western Electric and first used by
the Bell System in commerce.
DTMF signals are the superposition of 2 sine waves with different
It is a signaling Technology used for communicating between two far away
It uses frequency of speech signals.
Only 12 tones are used by our mobile communication out of the 16
combination that are possible.
The DTMF is a popular signaling method between telephones and
switching centers
The DTMF signals are Transmitted over a telephone line
DTMF Tone Generation
EXAMPLE:-Pressing the key !1! will result in a sound
composed of both a 697 and a 1209 hertz (Hz) tone.
CM-8870 DTMF Decoder IC

The CM-8870 is a full DTMF Receiver that integrates both band split
filter and decoder functions into a single18-pin DIP or SOIC package.

Manufactured using CMOS process technology.

The CM-8870 offers low power consumption (35 mW max) and
precise data handling.

Its decoder uses digital counting techniques to detect and decode all
16 DTMF tone pairs into a 4-bit code.
DTMF Decoder Circuit
How It Works In Mobile Robot