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SGD is a teaching-learning activity that

allows for constructive alignment of the

desired learning outcomes.
Careful planning & supervision is key to
successful SGDs
The teachers role is to provide structure to
the activity & the environment.

1.Develop their understanding of the subject by drawing on
their prior knowledge and experiences.

2.Explore diverse perspectives.
3.Work together,share ideas and reach group consensus
4.Practice generating their own ideas
5.Become conscious of their own thinking process,monitor
and evaluate their approaches to learning
6.Develop communication skills
7.Develop attitudes by questioning their own
8.Develop sense of ownership and responsibility for their
own learning
9.Develop sense of group identity
10.Grapple with new ideas and try to understand them.

structuring the learning activity and the
learning environment for maximum
facilitate and stimulate
preparing the learners to ensure they are
readyto engage in SGD

Ensure prior learning
Preparing students for
reflective thinking
Whole-class discussions

Clear focus on learning
Preparation of and by the learners
Clear set of guidelines for learners
Careful management of the learning
Direction by the teacher
Willingness in participation of all learners
Structured process for bringing learning to a
logical conclusion

Students ability to learn in this kind of environment
Acceptance of membership into the group
Lack of prior knowledge & preparation
Variety of pace of learning among group members
Discussion of irrelevant issues
Restrictive structure
Increased time for preparation
Physical arrangement
Dominated by talkative students

Buzz groups

Phillips 66



to ensure/increase students participation

to test students understanding of a topic

to get students feedback

to break long lectures

1.Start of a lecture
To assess what students know about a topic
2.Middle/end of a lecture
To break a lecture minimize monotony,
increase student participation
To discuss any problems with understanding
the topic
To answer a related question
To assess what students know about a
succeeding topic
To make students guess where the proceedings
are leading to

strategy that creates several small
groups of two to six people that
discuss a specific topic in an
informal way

Advantage of Buzz Groups
Can be used on a wide range of students
class size
Few restrictions on physical set-up of typical
How to conduct buzz groups activity?
can be done by simply telling the audience
to turn their seats and face their neighbor and
start a discussion

A variation of the buzz groups

Name comes from the inventor of this
technique, J. Donald Phillips

Groups of 6 members each discuss an
assigned topic for 6 minutes.

Divide the audience into groups of 6 members each.
A member is assigned to report the outcome of the group to the whole
class. A format for reporting the outcome is provided.
Groups discuss assigned topic for 6 minutes duration.
All groups present their results which will then be incorporated into a single
Size and duration of each session can be adjusted, instead of 6
members discussing for 6 minutes.
One can also combine the groups first and let them share
information before reporting to the bigger group.

can also be considered as an extension of
buzz groups strategy

described as a technique where there is a
progression of discussion sessions where in
each successive session, the groups size is
increased by joining two groups together

Discussion starts where each class member is paired
with another. Each pair is given a period of time to
discuss a topic or problem.
After the time given is up, each pair then joins with
another pair to form a group of four which then
continues the discussion on the topic or problem for a
given period of time.
Again, after the time for discussion is finished, each
group of four members joins with another group of
four to create a group of eight. This larger group again
is given a specified period of time to discuss the
assigned topic or problem.

Greater participation of members under
snowball strategy is ensured when the groups
are small, especially when members are first
asked to write down their ideas before
sharing them.

Students can afford to think over their ideas
for themselves before bringing these to the
bigger group.

a strategy where participants freely
contribute their ideas on a certain
subject or topic

used to solicit students understanding
of topic.

The teacher invites the whole group to give
answers to a question or problem.
He/she writes all the answers given without
commenting on a board or overhead.
After a short period provided for the
discussion or when participants have
exhausted all answers, the teacher reviews
with the group the list of answers.

Verbal explanation plus live display using
=Teaching model designed to promote
learning of procedural knowledge needed to
perform simple and complex skills for
declarative knowledge that is well structured
and can be taught in a step by step fashion.

Student Centered but Teacher Directed

Constructive Alignment

Learning outcomes must be measurable


Review andEvaluation


Student performance

1.Pre-instructional tasks
.Careful preparation of Objectives
Performing Task Analysis
Designing the Learning Environment
Doing a dry run prior to actual



3.Student Performance

4.Instructor Supervision

5.Extended Practice and Transfer