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Wireline Logging

Resistivity & SP Tools


Overview
Formation: Reservoir quality
Fluid: Oil, Gas or Water?
Borehole: Environmental factors
Formation Properties
Radioactivity
Porosity
Grain density
Pore Size
Stratigraphy
Bedding, Dip
Sonic Velocity
Seismic Velocity
Fluid Properties
Salinity (Resistivity)
Density
Saturation
Pressure
Temperature
Viscosity
Mobility
Bubble Point
Borehole Properties
Depth
Caliper
Spontaneous Potential
Temperature
Cable Tension
Deviation, Azimuth
Basic Resistivity
Resistivity (Ohms) = Voltage / Current
Archies Equation:
(a/porosity
m
x Rw / Rt)
1/n

Formation Resistivity
h
Rs
Rt
Rw
Sw
Rxo
Rmf
Sxo
Di
tmc - mud cake thickness
Rmc
Rm
Mud Invasion
Resistivity Logging
Electrode type tools (resistivity)
Laterolog
Micro Speherically Focused (MSFL)
Induction Tools (conductivity)
Dual Induction/HRI
Array Induction Tools
Conductivity = 1/Resistivity
Electrode Type Tools
Force (AC) current between two (or more)
electrodes.
Measure voltage between two intermediate
electrodes.
Force current to flow in zone of interest by using
bucking currents.
Do not work in non conductive muds such as
OBM.
Can give extremely high resolution and depth of
investigation.
Laterolog Principle
Bucking Currents
Dual Laterolog Tools
Two depths of investigation LLD and LLS
Deep current returns to a surface
electrode.
Insulated bridle to give a far deep voltage
reference.
Normally run together with MSFL to give
Rxo.
MSFL Principle
MSFL Tool
Pad based tool, similar to density.
Pad is kept in contact by a caliper.
Pad uses a spherical pattern of bucking
currents to focus measure current.
Can be affected by hole rugosity.
Pad is rubber and can be damaged.
Induction Principles
Dual Induction Tools
Two coil arrays emit a high frequency signal to excite
the formation.
The formation current generates a weak seconday signal
which is detected by receiver coils.
Strong direct signal from transmitter is (approx) 90 deg
out of phase with formation signal.
Formation signal is focused by combination of coils in
array and by source receiver spacing.
Reading will be compromised by highly conductive
(saline) water based muds.
Normally poorer vertical resolution and depth of
investigation than laterolog tools.
Array Induction tools
Large number of simpler coils at many different
spacings.
The data from all the coils at different
frequencies and phases is used at surface to
compute focused Resistivity readings.
Depths of investigation and vertical resolution
become software selectable.
Can be focussed as close as 10 horizontally and
12 vertically.
More sensitive to erratic tool motion.
SP Physics
Spontaneous Potential
One of the first wireline measurements.
Can be used to identify sand, shale, Vcl
Can be used to derive Rw
Based on the contrast between Rmf and Rw.
Chlorine ions are more mobile than Sodium
(NaCl) and migrate from the lower resistivity
zone to the higher.
This creates a polarisation.
SP Operational Limitations
Only works in conductive muds.
If Rmf > Rw looks similar to GR.
In opposite case polarity is reversed.
Requires a downhole electrode (laterolog
bridle) and surface electode.
Can be compromised by electrical noise
(welding etc) or magnetised cable drums.

SP Log
Resistivity Test 1
1. Which three of the following are normally measured in
the invaded zone: Rw, Sxo, Rxo, Rt, Rmf, Sw?
2. In a fresh mud system where Rmf>Rw the deep
resistivity would normally be (HIGHER/LOWER) than
the shallow?
3. What is the definition of conductivity?
4. Name the tool types that are normally referred to as
electrode type tools.
5. On electrode type tools why do we not normally
measure voltage at the same electrodes as the current
flows to/from?
Resistivity Test 2
6. How to we focus the current to flow in the
zone of interest?
7. On a laterolog tool where do the shallow and
deep currents flow to?
8. Why does a laterolog use an insulated bridle?
9. What other tool is normally run in combination?
10.Which of the following tools has a built in
caliper? (Array Induction, Dual Laterolog,
MSFL, Dual Induction)
Resistivity Test 3
11. Name two factors that can affect the MSFL reading.
12. Why does the formation signal for an induction tool
not get swamped by the direct signal from the
transmitter coil?
13. Induction tools work best in which mud type
(Saline/Non Conductive).
14. Laterolog type tools work best in which mud type
(Saline/Non Conductive).
15. MSFL type tools work best in which mud type
(Saline/Non Conductive).
Resistivity Test 4
16.SP is an acronym for what borehole property?
17.The SP measures a voltage or a current?
18.The SP system uses 2 electrodes where are
they located.
19.If the SP deflects in the same direction as the
GR is Rmf greater or less than Rw?
20.Name two causes of bad SP logs.