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JJ 615 MECHANICAL COMPONENTS &

MAINTENANCE
PUMPS , VALVE AND
COMPRESSOR

RENDI RAHMAT
15DKM11F1056
AMIRUDDIN KHAIRI BIN ALIF
15DKM11F1125
MOHD NADZMI BIN ALI HUSSIN
15DKM11F1119
NOR SURAINI BINTI MOHAMAD ANUAR @ NOOR
RASHID 15DKM11F1051
PUMPS
A pumps is designed to transfer a fluid from one point to
another. Pumps transfer fluid from low pressure area to
high pressure areas, low elevations to higher elevations,
and from local locations to distant locations.

APPLICATIONS OF PUMPS
Drainage - Used to control the level of water in a
protected area.
Sewage - Used in the collection and treatment of
sewage.
Irrigation - Used to make dry lands agriculturally
productive.
Steel Mills - Used to transport cooling water.

PUMP CLASSIFICATION
Pump
classification
Kinetic
pump
centrifugal
Regenerative
turbine
Special
effect
Positive
displacement pump
rotary
reciprocating
PUMP PRINCIPLES

Liquids have no shape of their own and flow to acquire the
shape of their container
Liquids can be considered incompressible at pressures used
in hydraulic systems
Liquids transmit pressure equally in all directions.
The flow rate of oil from a non-positive pump depends on the
speed of the pump and on the system pressure.
The flow rate of oil from a positive displacement pump varies
proportionally with pump speed but is virtually independent of
system pressure.
Any flow of liquid through a pipe or orifice is accompanied by a
reduction in liquid pressure.




KINETIC PUMP
Kinetic pumps add energy continuously.
This energy increases the fluid velocity.
The resulting velocity reduction pressure increase.
Pressure does not exceed the system resistance, the
fluid does not move.
This type of pump is a machine that uses the dynamic
principle of accelerating fluid.

CENTRIFUGAL PUMP
This type of pump is a machine that uses the dynamic
principle of accelerating fluid, through centrifugal activity,
and converting the kinetic energy into pressure.
Centrifugal pumps will only pump, or build pressure, to a
designed level.
When this level is reached, the fluid no longer moves
and all the kinetic energy is converted to heat.
This heat can cause the fluid to vaporize or build
pressure within the pump, sometimes exceeding its
design limit.

Centrifugal pumps
Overhung
impeller pumps
Impeller between
bearing pumps
POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT PUMP

Positive Displacement pumps push or pull liquid from one
point to another using various mechanical configurations.
A positive displacement pump will continue to pump fluid until
relieved.
It is only limited by the pressure limitation of the pump
materials and system.
This characteristic means that the pressure will continue to
build until alleviated.
Relief can come in a controlled form at relief valves, rupture
disks or other pressure relief devices.
Positive displacement pumps are classified as Rotary or
Reciprocating. They are often used to pump thick, viscous
fluids or where a finite amount of fluid is required in a given
time.

ROTARY PUMPS
A Rotary pump is a positive displacement pump
consisting of a chamber(s) containing gears, lobes,
cams, vanes, screws or similar elements driven by
a rotating shaft.
Close running clearances enable the pump to
generate the proper hydraulics.
As these clearances increase, due to wearing of
parts, the pumps efficiency drops dramatically.
Relief valves are recommended to prevent
pressure from building beyond the pressure
limitation of the system.

Rotary
pumps
Gear
pumps
Lobe
pumps
Vane
pumps
Screw
pumps
GEAR PUMP
consists of two spur gears meshing together and
revolving in opposite directions within a casing.


LOPE PUMP
Lobe pumps are used in a variety of industries including,
pulp and paper, chemical, food, beverage,
pharmaceutical, and biotechnology.



VANE PUMP
vane pumps are used for liquid transfer applications
from chemicals to liquefied gases.




SCREW PUMP
screw pump assures reliable operation and a long life
because through the pump is positive displacement type.



RECIPROCATING PUMP
A Reciprocating pump is a positive displacement
pump consisting of a liquid end and a drive end.
The liquid end consists of a device to displace a
fixed volume of fluid for each stroke of the drive
end.
Suction and discharge flow is usually determined by
the position of check valves.


PROCEDURE OF MAINTENANCE OF PUMP
Maintenance Concept : that governs the
maintenance levels and type of maintenance
actions to be performed for a equipment, machine,
plant, or system. (pumps)



CHECK LIST OF PUMPS MAINTENANCE
Description Comment
Pumps use and sequencing

Turn off or sequence unnecessary
motors.
Overall visual inspection

Complete overall visual inspection to
be sure all equipment is operating and
safety systems are in place.
Check lubricating

Assure that all bearing are lubricated
per the manufacture recommendation.
Check packing (chamber)

Check packing for wear and repack as
necessary. Consider replacing packing
with mechanical seals.
Motor and pump alignment

Align the pumps/motor coupling to
allow for efficient torque transfer to the
pump.
Check mountings Check and secure all pump
mountings.
Check bearing Inspect bearing and drive belts for
wear. Adjust, repair, or replace as
necessary.
Motor condition Check the condition of the motor
through temperature or vibration
analysis to assure long life.
THE PART OF MAINTENANCE
Heat
Pressure
Noise
Flow
Leakage
Power consumption
Liquid level
Speed (motor , rpm)

PUMP MAINTENANCE PROCEDURE
Pump installation
Installation of the pump is the most crucial step that
determines the performance and maintenance
requirements of the pump over a longer period.

Pump Inspection

It has to mentioned that most of the pumps used are lubricated
by oil and the pump manufacturers do not export the pumps
with oil installed in the bearing frames.

Oil is added just before initialization of pump operation. Oil
should be replaced after the first 200 hours of operating or
every 3 month.

Used the correct oil will smoothen the pump operation and will
not allow the bearing to burn quickly.

Pump Reassembly
After the initial process of cleaning and inspection of pump
components, it is time to reassemble the pump unit.

During the reassembly, care should be time taken so that the
various components remain clean and no remains should build
up.

VALVE
A valve is a device that regulates, directs or controls the
flow of fluid (gas, liquids, fluidized solids, or slurries) by
opening, closing, or partially obstructs the passage of
various
APPLICATION OF VALVE
These valves are to be useful in industries such as:
Refineries
Petrochemical
Fertilizer
Sugar
Cement
Power Plant
Chemical Process Industries
Water Treatment
Oil Treatment
Food
Beverage and others.
TYPES AND CHARACTERISTICS OF THE VALVE
Check valve = allows fluid to pass in one direction
only.
Gate valve = for on / off control, with low pressure.
Spool valve = to control hydraulic system.
Ball valve = for on / off control without pressure
drop, and ideal for quick closing.
TYPES VALVE
Ball valve
the ball through the hole diameter
that can be rotated to align with the flow
or blocking.
Valve functions can be easily controlled,
and only require rotation to operate.
Can be powered with Pneumatic
and electric Movers.
Valve plug
Similar to ball valves except
the cylinder used instead of spherical
More expensive but more
robust than the ball valve
Requires more rotation to turn
but still easy to move
Diaphragm valves
very easy
Plunger and hand wheel is often used for Pressing the
diaphragm
Moved by pneumatic or electric

Gate valve
A sliding disc slides up and down in and out of
liquid
Good for high pressure drop and high
temperature applications where operation is
infrequent
Operating manual or other multi-turn electric
driving is the most common
Globe valve
A conical plug to move in and out of fluid
Can be used for pressure drop and temperature
applications
There are in the world, angle, and y-pattern
Operating manual or other multi-turn electric
driving is the most common
The pressure drop is easier to repair, but more of
a door or valve plug
VALVE PROCEDURES
Manual = Be activated manually by the operator by
pressing the button provided.
Mechanical = mobilized by mechanical
mechanisms SPT switch wheels.
Pneumatic compression = mobilized by wind
Electrical = be activated by a solenoid
VALVE MAINTENANCE CONCEPT
Use only original spare parts from the manufacturer of the valve
Ensure that the valve springs and suction and discharge stroke right
- Do not mix if different.
Do not grind the valve plate.
Do not change the stroke of the valve springs without consulting the
manufacturer.
Renew the sealing surface. Install new sealing elements and rework
the valve seat.
Follow manufactures specs. for max. wear parts.
Consider the dimensions of which are not to be changed, especially
on the suction valve time.
If in doubt, always replace the parts. Premature failure of the valve is
more expensive than the savings possible with the use of worn parts.
If the valve is to be sent to a repair shop to pack them properly to
avoid damage during transportation.
PROCEDURES MAINTENANCE
1 . Always wear rubber gloves when handling Gate Valve
2 . Move the valve to the Open Gate
3 . For safety , remove the air mover
4 . Remove the bolt that holds the actuator assembly Bonnet
5 . Pull Bonnet Actuator Carriage Assembly , careful adjustment of the connective Current issue
6 . Remove O- Ring or gasket from Bonnet Assembly and discard
7 . Remove O- Ring Gate by choosing plastic , taking care not to scratch the O- Ring Groove ;
Remove O- Ring
8 . Clean O- Ring groove with IPA and dried with nitrogen or CDA
9 . use a light coat of grease L Apezion new O- Ring Gate
10. Install new O- Ring on the door , careful to avoid twisting or deforming O- Ring
11. use a light coat of grease L Apezion new Bonnet assembly Viton O- Gasket Ring Copper
install dry
12 . Install new O-Ring/Gasket Bonnet assembly , be careful to avoid twisting or deforming the
O- Ring
13. Replace Bonnet Actuator Assembly into the valve body
14. Install the bolts and tighten.