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Technology Training

December 4, 2012

LTE radio resources
Duplex techniques FDD / TDD
Multiple antenna techniques
Reference signals
Throughput calculation
Rank Index
PCI (Physical cell identity)
Cyclic prefix (CP)
Network architecture

Resource Block
LTE radio resource = time-frequency chunk
Time domain
1 frame = 10 ms = 10 sub-frames
1 subframe = 1 ms = 2 time slots
1 slot = 0.5 ms = 7 (or 6) OFDM
Frequency domain
1 OFDM carrier = 15KHz
Resource Block (RB) = 12
carriers in one TS
(12*15KHz x 0.5ms)
Scalable Bandwidth
Parameter Value
Bandwidth (MHz) 1.4 3 5 10 15 20
Frame /subframe
10/1 ms
Subcarrier spacing 15KHz
Resource blocks 6 15 25 50 75 100
Number of used
72 180 300 600 900 1200
OFDM symbols /slot 7 (normal CP), 6 (extended CP)

TDD frame configurations
Different configurations allow
balancing between DL and UL
Adjacent cells have same allocation
TDD Special Subframe Configurations
Special Subframe Formats
Multi antenna techniques
LTE uses of multiple antennas at
both communication ends
MIMO Techniques
Spatial multiplexing
TX diversity
SDMA (Space division multiple access)
Beam forming

Downlink MIMO
Uplink MIMO
Reference signals
Reference signals :
Cell search & initial acquisition
DL channel quality estimation

Mainly there are two type of reference signals
1. Cell specific DL reference signals
Every DL subframe
Across entire DL bandwidth
2. UE specific DL reference signals
Intended for individual UEs

There are 504 different Reference Sequences (RS)
They are linked to PHY-layer cell identities
Shifts are introduced to avoid collision between RS of adjacent cells
For a given PHY Cell ID - sequence is the same regardless of the bandwidth used.

Cell specific reference signals
UE Specific RS
UE specific RS used for beam forming
Provided in addition to cell specific RS
Sent over resource block allocated for DL-SCH (applicable only
for data transmission)

Note: additional reference signals
increase overhead. One of the most
beneficial use of beam forming is at the
cell edge improves SNR
Throughput calculation
An exercise to calculate throughput for different configurations.
Rank Index
Represents the number of layers to be used in downlink
Rank Index values are proposed by the UE based on the radio
eNodeB may or may not follow UE proposal.
2x2 MIMO
Spatial multiplexing : RI = 2
Transmit diversity : RI = 1
SDMA: RI = 1
Beam forming : RI = 1
4x4 MIMO
Spatial Multiplexing : RI = 2, 3, 4.
Transmit Diversity : RI = 1.
SDMA: RI = 1
Beam forming : RI = 1

Physical cell identity (PCI)
PCI = PSS + 3* SSS
Primary synchronization signal :
Frequency synchronization.
Time slot synchronization.
3 PSS values (0,1,2)
Secondary synchronization signal :
Radio frame synchronization.
TDD/FDD duplex information.
CP length.
168 SSS values, (0 to 167).
3*168 = 504 different PCI values.

Planning guidelines:
Co PCI scenario must never happen.
All 3 cells of a site should have same SSS.
PSS should be defined 0 for first sector, 1
for second sector, 2 for third sector.
Some SSS should be reserved for indoor
sites i.e. (151 167).

Cyclic prefix
Multipath propagation degrades orthogonality between carriers, to regain the orthogonality
cyclic prefix is used.
Copying the last part of a symbol shape for a duration of guard-time and attaching it in front of the
A receiver typically uses the last part of the following symbol to locate the start of the symbol and
begin then with decoding.
Normal CP : Length is 4.7 us. With normal CP, 7 symbols per time slot.
Extended CP : Length is16.7 us. 6 symbols per time slot.

LTE Architecture
Evolved packet core (EPC)
MME (Mobility Management Entity)
Control plane function.
Idle mode tracking.
Allocation of temporary identities to UE.
Choosing the SGW for UE during initial attach.
User authentication & interaction with HSS (home subscriber server).
SGW (Serving Gateway)
User plane function.
Carry data packets.
PGW (PDN Gateway)
Connects to the external data network.