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FS - 1

Forces in space

A Force in space: A Force is said to be in space if its line of

action makes an angle , and with respect to rectangular

co-ordinate axes X, Y and Z respectively as shown the Fig. 1.

F Fig. 1. A Force in space

FS - 2

Forces in space

Noncoplanar system of forces (Forces in

Space) and Their Classifications

System of forces which do not lie in a single plane is called

noncoplanar system of forces(Forces in space ). A typical

noncoplanar system of forces (forces in space) is shown in

the Fig. 2. below

Fig. 2 Forces in space (noncoplanar system of forces)

FS - 3

Forces in space

Noncoplanar system of forces(Forces in space) can be broadly

classified into three categories. They are

1. Concurrent noncoplanar system of forces

2. Nonconcurrent noncoplanar system of forces

3. Noncoplanar parallel system of forces

FS - 4

Forces in space

1. Concurrent noncoplanar system of forces: Forces which

meet at a point with their lines of action do not lie in a plane

are called Concurrent noncoplanar system of forces. A

typical system of Concurrent noncoplanar system of forces is

shown in the Fig.3.

Fig. 3. Concurrent noncoplanar system of forces

FS - 5

Forces in space

2. Nonconcurrent noncoplanar system of forces: Forces which

do not meet at a point and their lines of action do not lie in a

plane, such forces are called Nonconcurrent noncoplanar

system of forces. A typical system of nonconcurrent

noncoplanar system of forces is shown in the Fig.4.

Fig. 4. Nonconcurrent noncoplanar system of forces

FS - 6

Forces in space

3. Noncoplanar parallel system of forces: If lines of action of all

the forces in a system are parallel and they do not lie in a plane

such a system is called Non-coplanar parallel system of

forces. If all the forces are pointing in one direction then they

are called Like parallel forces otherwise they are called unlike

parallel forces as shown in the Fig.5.

Fig. 5 Noncoplanar parallel system of forces

FS - 7

Forces in space

Fig. 6. Resolving a force in space into rectangular components

Rectangular components of a force in space

FS - 8

Rectangular components of a force in space

In the Fig.6(a) a force F is acting at the origin O of the system

of rectangular coordinate axes X,Y,Z. Consider OBAC plane

passing through the force F. This plane makes an angle with

respect to XOY plane. Force F makes an angle

y

with

respect to Y-axis.

Forces in space

Fig.6(a)

FS - 9

Rectangular components of a force in space

In the Fig.6(b), the force F is resolved in the vertical (Y- axis) and

horizontal direction (X axis) as

F

y

= F Cos

y

and

F

h

= F Sin

y

respectively.

Forces in space

Fig.6(b)

FS - 10

Rectangular components of a force in space

In the Fig 6(c) the horizontal component F

h

is again resolved in the X and

Z axes directions. These components are

F

x

= F

h

cos = F sin

y

cos

F

z

= F

h

Sin = F sin

y

sin

Forces in space

Fig.6(c)

FS - 11

Now applying Pythagorean theorem to the triangles OAB

and OCD

F

2

= (OA)

2

= OB

2

+ BA

2

= F

y

2

+F

h

2

----------------(1)

F

h

2

= OC

2

= OD

2

+ DC

2

= F

x

2

+F

z

2

----------------(2)

Substituting equation (2) into the equation (1), we get

F

2

= F

x

2

+F

y

2

+ F

z

2

F = F

x

2

+ F

y

2

+ F

z

2

----------------(3)

Forces in space

FS - 12

Forces in space

The relationship existing between the force F and its three components Fx,

Fy, Fz is more easily visualized if a box having Fx, Fy, Fz for edges is drawn

as shown below. The force F is then represented by the original OA of this

box.

Fig. 7 Relationship between Force F and its components Fx, Fy and Fz

FS - 13

From the above Figure (Fig. 7)

F

x

= F Cos

x

, F

y

= F Cos

y

, F

z

= F Cos

z

------------(4)

Where

x

,

y

,

z

are the angles formed by the force F with X, Y, Z axes respectively.

F

x

,F

y

,F

z

are the rectangular components of the force F in the directions of X, Y, Z

axes respectively.

Cos

x

= F

x

/F; Cos

y

= F

y

/F; Cos

z

= F

z

/F

Substituting equation (4) into the equation (3), we get

F = F

x

2

+ F

y

2

+ F

z

2

F = F

2

Cos

2

x

+ F

2

Cos

2

y

+ F

2

Cos

2

z

F

2

= F

2

( Cos

2

x

+ Cos

2

y

+ Cos

2

z

)

1 = Cos

2

x

+ Cos

2

y

+ Cos

2

z

-------------(5)

Forces in space

FS - 14

From the adjacent Fig. 8.

d

x

= d Cos

x

, d

y

= d Cos

y

,

d

z

= d Cos

z

----(6)

d = d

x

2

+ d

y

2

+ d

z

2

---(7)

Dividing member by

member the relations (4) and

(6), we obtain

F

x

/d

x

= F

y

/d

y

= F

z

/d

z

= F/d

----------------------------(8)

Forces in space

Force Defined by its magnitude and two points on its line of action

Fig 8

FS - 15

Forces in space

Resultant of concurrent forces in Space:-

Resolve all the forces into their rectangular components in X, Y and Z axes directions.

Adding algebraically all the horizontal components in the x direction gives

R

x

= F

x

,

Similarly adding algebraically all the components in y and z directions yield the

following relations

R

y

= F

y

,

R

z

= F

z

Thus magnitude of resultant

R = R

x

2

+ R

y

2

+ R

z

2

Angles

x

,

y

,

z

resultant forms with the axes of coordinates are obtained by

R

R

Cos

R

R

Cos

R

R

Cos

z

z

y

y

x

x

; ;

FS - 16

Problems:

(1) A tower guy wire is anchored by means of a bolt at A is shown in the following

Figure. The tension in the wire is 6000N. Determine

(a) The components F

x

, F

y

, F

z

of the forces acting on the bolt.

(b) The angles

x

,

y

,

z

defining the direction of the force.

Forces in space

FS - 17

Solution: (a) Here d

x

= 50m, d

y

= 200m, d

z

= -100m

Total distance A to B

d = d

x

2

+ d

y

2

+ d

z

2

= (50)

2

+ (200)

2

+ (-100)

2

= 229.13 m

Using the equation (8) F

x

/d

x

= F

y

/d

y

= F

z

/d

z

= F/d

F

x

= d

x

. (F/d) = (50 x 6000)/ 229.13 = 1309.3 N

F

y

= d

y

. (F/d) = (200 x 6000)/ 229.13 = 5237.20 N

F

z

= d

z

. (F/d) = (-100 x 6000)/ 229.13 = -2618.6 N

Forces in space

FS - 18

(b) Directions of the force:

Cos

x

= d

x

/d ,

x

= Cos

1

(50/229.13) = 77.4

y

= Cos

1

(d

y

/d) = Cos

1

(200/229.13) = 29.2

z

= Cos

1

(d

z

/d) = Cos

1

(-100/229.13) = 115.88

Forces in space

FS - 19

Problem(2) Determine (a) the x , y and z components of the 250 N

force acting as shown below

(b) the angles

x

,

y

,

z

that the force forms with the coordinate

axes.

Forces in space

FS - 20

F

h

= 250 Cos60 = 125 N F

y

= 250 Sin60 = 216.5 N

F

x

= 125 Cos25 = 113.29 N F

z

= 125Sin25 = -52.83 N

x

= Cos

1

( F

x

/F) = Cos

1

(113.29/250) = 63

y

= Cos

1

( F

y

/F) = Cos

1

(216.5/250) = 30

z

= Cos

1

( F

z

/F) = Cos

1

(-52.83/250) = 102.11

o

Components of 250 N in the x, y, z axes directions are

F

x

= 113.29N F

y

= 216.5 N F

z

= -52.83N

Forces in space

FS - 21

Problem 3. Find the resultant of the system of forces as shown

below

Forces in space

FS - 22

Solution

Components of Force F

1

= 3000 N:

Fy

1

= 3000 x Cos40

o

= 2298.13 N

Fh

1

= 3000 x Sin40

o

= 1928.36 N

Fx

1

= 1928.36 x Cos30

o

=1670 N

Fz

1

= 1928.36 x Sin30

o

= 964.18 N

Forces in space

FS - 23

Components of Force F

2

= 2000 N:

Fy

2

= 2000 x Cos20 = 1879.39 N

Fh

2

= 2000 x Sin20 = 684.04 N

Fx

2

= 684.04 x Sin35 = 392.35 N

Fz

2

= 684.04 x Cos35 = 560.33N

Forces in space

FS - 24

R

x

= F

x

= Fx

1

+ Fx

2

= 1670 392.35 = 1277.65

R

y

= F

y

= Fy

1

+ Fy

2

= 2298.13 + 1879.39 = 4177.52 N

R

z

= F

z

= Fz

1

+ Fz

2

= 964.18 + 560.33 = 1524.51 N

Resultant R = R

x

2

+ R

y

2

+R

z

2

= 1277.65

2

+4177.52

2

+1524.51

2

= 4626.9 N

Its inclinations with respect to x, y and z axes are

calculated as

x

= Cos

1

(1277.65 /4626.9) = 73 58' 13.1"

y

= Cos

1

(4177.52/4626.9) = 25 27'

z

= Cos

1

(1526.51/4626.9) = 70

o

4536

Forces in space

FS - 25

Problem 4. In the Fig shown below, the forces in the cables AB and AC

are 100 kN and 150 kN respectively. At the joint A loading is as

shown in the Fig. Find the resultant of system of forces in space and its

inclination with rectangular coordinates x,y and z axes.

Forces in space

FS - 26

Solution: Force in the cable AB = 100 kN

Force in the cable AC=150 kN

For the cable AB

dx = -20 m

dy = 15m

dz = 5m

d

AB

= dx

2

+dy

2

+ dz

2

= (-20)

2

+(15)

2

+ (5)

2

= 650 = 25.5 m

For the cable AC

dx = -20 m

dy = 25m

dz = -10m

d

Ac

= (-20)

2

+(25)

2

+ (-10)

2

= 1125 = 33.54 m

FS - 27

Forces in space

For the cable AB (1)

Fx

1

/dx

1

= Fy

1

/dy

1

= Fz

1

/dz

1

= F/d

Fx

1

/-20 = Fy

1

/15 = Fz

1

/5 = 100/25.5

Fx

1

= -78.41 kN

Fy

1

= 58.82 kN

Fz

1

= 19.61 kN

For the Cable AC (2)

Fx

2

/-20 = Fy

2

/25 = Fz

2

/-10 = 150/33.54

Fx

2

= - 89.45 kN

Fy

2

= 111.81 kN

Fz

2

= - 44.72 kN

Forces in space

FS - 28

Component of force 60 kN

F

x3

= 60 x Cos(70) = 20.52 kN

F

y3

= 60 x Cos(30

o

) = 51.96 kN

F

z3

= 60 x Cos(11123)= - 21.88 kN

Component of the force 50KN

F

x4

= 50 kN

F

y4

= 0

F

z4

= 0

Forces in space

FS - 29

Algebraic summation of Rectangular Components in X, Y and Z

axes directions yield:

Rx = Fx = Fx

1

+ Fx

2

+ Fx

3

+ Fx

4

= -78.43 - 89.45 + 20.52 + 50

= -97.36 kN

Ry = Fy = Fy

1

+ Fy

2

+ Fy

3

+ Fy

4

= 58.82 + 111.81 + 51.96 + 0

= 222.59 kN

Rz = Fz = Fz

1

+ Fz

2

+ Fz

3

+ Fz

4

= 19.61 44.72 21.88 + 0

= -46.99 kN

Resultant R = Rx

2

+ Ry

2

+ Rz

2

= (-97.36)

2

+ (222.59)

2

+ (-46.99)

2

= 247.45 kN

Forces in space

FS - 30

Inclinations of the resultant with X,Y and Z axes:

x

= Cos

-1

(R

x

/ R) = Cos

-1

(-97.36/247.45) = 113 10

y

= Cos

-1

(R

y

/ R) = Cos

-1

(222.59/247.45) = 25 54

z

= Cos

-1

(R

z

/ R) = Cos

-1

(-46.99/247.45) = 100 56 47

Check:

Cos

2

x

+ Cos

2

y

+ Cos

2

z

= 1

Cos

2

(11310) + Cos

2

(2554) + Cos

2

(10056) = 1

1 = 1

Hence OK

Forces in space

FS - 31

Problem 5. a) Forces F

1

, F

2

, and F

3

pass through the origin and

points whose coordinates are given. Determine the

resultant of the system of forces.

F

1

= 20 kN, (3,-2,1)

F

2

= 35 kN, (-2,4,0)

F

3

= 25 kN, (1,2,-3)

Forces in space

FS - 32

Forces in space

Solution:

FS - 33

Force F

1

= 20 kN

d = 3

2

+ (-2)

2

+ 12 = 14 = 3.74

Cos

x1

= d

x

/ d = 3/3.74 = 0.802

Cos

y1

= -2/3.74 = -0.535; Cos

z1

= 1/3.74 = 0.267

Force F

2

= 35 kN

d = (-2)

2

+ 4

2

+0 = 20 = 4.47

Cos

x2

= -2/4.47 = -0.45

Cos

y2

= 4/4.47 = 0.9; Cos

z2

= 0

Force F

3

= 25 kN

d = (1)

2

+ 2

2

+(-3)

2

= 14 = 3.74

Cos

x3

= 1/3.74 = 0.267

Cos

y3

= 2/3.74 = 0.535; Cos

z3

= -3/3.74 = -0.802

Forces in space

FS - 34

Summation of the rectangular components in X, Y and Z axes directions

yield:

R

x

= F

x

= 20 x 0.802 + 35 x (-0.45) +25 x 0.267 = 6.965 kN

R

y

= F

y

= 20 x (-0.535) + 35 x 0.9 + 25 x 0.535 = 34.175 kN

R

z

= F

z

= 20 x 0.267 + 35 x 0 + 25 x (-0.802) = -14.71 kN

Resultant R = Rx

2

+ Ry

2

+ Rz

2

= 6.965

2

+ 34.175

2

+ (-14.71)

2

= 37.85 kN

Inclination of the resultant R with respect to X, Y and Z axes are

calculated as

x

= Cos

1

(R

x

/ R) = Cos

-1

(6.965/37.85 ) = 79.4

y

= Cos

1

(R

y

/R) = Cos

-1

(34.175/37.85) = 25.46

z

= Cos

1

(R

z

/R) = Cos

-1

(-14.71/37.85) = 112.87

Forces in space

FS - 35

Forces in space

Equilibrium of Concurrent non-coplanar system of forces:

When a rigid body subjected to concurrent noncoplanar system of forces

F

1

, F

2

. ..F

N

as shown in the Fig. given below, is in equilibrium, then

algebraic summation of all the components of the forces in three mutually

perpendicular directions must be equal to zero.

Fig. A rigid body subjected to concurrent

noncoplanar system of forces

i.e. F

x

= 0

F

y

= 0

F

z

= 0 (1)

Above equations represent the static

conditions of equilibrium for concurrent

noncoplanar system of forces

FS - 36

Problem (1) Find the forces in the rods AB , AC and AO subjected to

loading as shown below

Forces in

space

FS - 37

Solution:

For the cable AB:

d

x1

= 0 - 4 = - 4

d

y1

= 8 - 0 = 8

d

z1

= 15 0 =15

d

1

= (-4)

2

+(8)

2

+(15)

2

= 17.46 m

F

x1

/-4 = F

y1

/8 = F

z1

/15 = F

AB

/17.46

F

x1

= -0.23F

AB

,

F

y1

= 0.46F

AB

,

F

z1

= 0.86F

AB

Forces in space

FS - 38

For the Cable AC:

dx

2

= 0 - 4 = -4m

dy

2

= 8 - 0 = 8m

dz

2

= -20 0 = -20m

d

2

= (-4)

2

+(8)

2

+(-20)

2

= 480 = 21.91m

F

x2

/-4 = F

y2

/8 = F

z2

/-20 = F

AC

/21.91

F

x2

= -0.18F

AC

, F

y2

= 0.365F

Ac

, F

z2

= -0.91F

Ac

For the Force 120 N:

F

x3

= 120 N, F

y3

= 0, F

z3

= 0

For the force Fx

4

= 300 N:

Fx

4

= 0, Fy

4

= -300N, Fz

4

= 0

Forces in space

FS - 39

Conditions of Equilibrium

Fx = 0, Fy = 0, Fz = 0

Considering Fx = 0

Fx

1

+ Fx

2

+ Fx

3

+ Fx

4

+ Fx

5

= 0

-F

AD

-0.23F 0.18F

AC

+ 120 + 0 = 0

F

AD

+ 0.23F

AB

+ 0.183F

AC

= 120 ----------------------(1)

Fy = 0

0.46F

AB

+ 0.365F

AC

+ 0 +0 300 = 0

0.46F

AB

+ 0.365F

AC

= 300 ------------------------------(2)

Fz = 0

0.86 F

AB

0.91 F

AC

+ 0 = 0 -----------------------(3)

Forces in space

FS - 40

Solving Equations (1), (2) and (3), we get,

F

AB

= 372.675 N; F

AC

= 352.25 N ; F

AO

= - 30.18 N

Force in the rod AB , F

AB

= 372.675 N (Tensile)

Force in the rod AC, F

AC

= 352.25 N (Tensile)

Force in the rod AO, F

AO

= 30.18 N (Compressive)

Forces in space

FS - 41

2) Three cables are connected at D and support, the 400

kN load as shown in the Fig given below. Determine the

tensions in each cable

Forces in space

FS - 42

Let F

DA

, F

DB

and F

DC

are the forces in the cables AD, BD,

and CD respectively.

For Cable DA:

dx

1

= (0 3) = -3m

dy

1

= (6 - 4) =2 m

dz

1

= (6 0 = 6 m

d

AD

= dx

2

+ dy

2

+ dz

2

d

AD

= (-3)

2

+ (2)

2

+ (6)

2

= 9 + 4 + 36 = 7 m

Fx

1

/dx

1

= Fy

1

/dy

1

= Fz

1

/dz

1

= F

DA

/d

DA

Fx

1

/(-3) = Fy

1

/2 = Fz

1

/6 = F

DA

/7

Fx

1

= -0.43F

DA

, Fy

1

=0.286F

DA

, Fz

1

= 0.857F

DA

Forces in space

FS - 43

For Cable DB:

dx

2

= (0 3) = -3m

dy

2

= (6 - 4) =2 m

dz

2

= (-6 0 = -6 m

d

BD

= d2 = (-3)

2

+ (2)

2

+ (-6)

2

= 49 = 7 m

Fx

2

/dx

2

= Fy

2

/dy

2

= Fz

2

/dz

2

= F

DB

/d

DB

Fx

2

/(-3) = Fy

2

/2 = Fz

2

/-6 = F

DB

/7

Fx

2

= -0.43F

DB

,

Fy

2

=0.286F

DB

,

Fz

2

= -0.857F

DB

Forces in space

FS - 44

For Cable DC:

dx

3

(0 3) = -3m

dy

3

= (0- 4) = -4m

dz

3

= (0 0 = 0m

d

DC

= d

3

= (-3)

2

+ (-4) + (0)

2

= 9 + 16

= 5m

Fx

3

/dx

3

= Fy

3

/dy

3

= Fz

3

/dz

3

= F

DC

/d

DC

Fx

3

/(-3) = Fy

3

/-4 = Fz

3

/0 = F

DC

/5

Fx

3

= -0.6F

DC

,

Fy

3

=-0.8F

DC

,

Fz

3

= 0

Forces in space

FS - 45

For the force 400KN

dx

4

= 12m

dy

4

= -4m

dz

4

= 3m

d

4

= d

400

= (12)

2

+ (4) + (3)

2

= 144 +16 + 9

= 69 = 13m

Fx

4

/dx

4

= Fy

4

/dy

4

= Fz

4

/dz

4

= F

400

/d

4

Fx

4

/(12) = Fy

4

/-4 = Fz

4

/3 = 400/13

Fx

4

= 369.23 kN,

Fy

4

= -123.08 kN,

Fz

4

= +92.31 kN

Forces in space

FS - 46

For Equilibrium, the algebraic summation of resolved

component in a particular direction is equal to zero.

i.e. Fx = 0 -------------(1)

Fy = 0 ------------- (2)

Fz = 0 --------------(3)

(1) Fx = Fx1 + Fx2 + Fx3 + Fx4 = 0

+ 0.43F

DA

+ 0.43F

DB

+ 0.6F

DC

= 369.23 ---------(1)

+ 0.286F

DA

+ 0.286F

DB

0.8F

DC

= 123.08 ------(2)

+ 0.857F

DA

- 0.857F

DB

+ 0 = 92.31 ------------(3)

Forces in space

FS - 47

Solving equations (1), (2) and (3), we get

F

DB

= 304.1kN

F

DA

= 411.8 kN

F

DC

= 102 kN

Forces in space

FS - 48

Forces in space

Practice Questions

1. A tower guy wire is anchored by means of a bolt at A as shown below.

The tension in the wire is 2500 N. Determine (a) the components F

x

, F

y

and F

z

of the force acting on the bolt, (b) the angles x, y, z defining

the direction of the force

(Ans: F

x

= -1060 N , F

y

= 2120 N, F

z

= + 795 N

x = 115.1

o

; y= 32.0

o

; z= 71.5

o

)

FS - 49

Forces in space Practice Questions

2. Determine (a) x, y and z the components of the force 500 N in the below

Figure. (b) the angles x, y, z that the force forms with the coordinate

axes

(Ans: F

x

= + 278 N , F

y

= + 383 N, F

z

= + 160.7

N

x = 56.2

o

; y= 40.0

o

; z= 71.3

o

)

FS - 50

Forces in space Practice Questions

3. In order to move a wrecked truck, two cables are attached at A and

pulled by winches B and C as shown. Knowing that the tension in the

cable AB is 10 kN, determine the components of the force exerted by the

cable AB on the truck

(Ans: F

x

= -6.30 kN , F

y

= 6.06 kN, F

z

= + 4.85

kN)

FS - 51

Forces in space Practice Questions

4. A 200 kg cylinder is hung by means of two cables AB and AC, which are

attached to the top of a vertical wall. A horizontal force P perpendicular

to the wall holds the cylinder in the position shown. Determine the

magnitude of the force P and the tension in each cable

(Ans: P = 235 N , T

AB

= 1401 N, T

AC

= + 1236 N

)

FS - 52

Forces in space Practice Questions

5. Three cables are connected at A, where the forces P and Q are applied as

shown. Determine the tension in each cable when P = 0 and Q = 7.28

kN

(Ans: T

AB

= 2.88 kN , T

AC

= 5.76 kN, T

AD

= 3.6

kN)

FS - 53

Forces in space

6. A container of weight w = 400 N is supported by cables AB and AC

which are tied to ring A. Knowing that Q = 0, determine (a) the

magnitude of the force P which must be applied to the ring to maintain

the container in the position shown in figure below, (b) the

corresponding the values of the tension in cables AB and AC

(Ans: P = 138 N ,

T

AB

= 270N,

T

AC

= 196N )

Practice Questions

FS - 54

Forces in space

7. A container supported by three cables as shown below. Determine the

weight of the container, knowing that the tension in the cable AB is 4 kN

Ans: 9.32 kN

Practice Questions

FS - 55

Forces in space

8. Determine the resultant of the two forces shown below.

Practice Questions

(Ans: R = 498 N ,

x = 68.9

o

; y= 26.3

o

; z= 75.1

o

)

FS - 56

Forces in space

9. A container of weight W = 1165 N is supported by three cables as shown

below. Determine the tension in each cable.

Ans: T

AB

= 500 N

T

AC

= 459 N

T

AD

= 516 N

Practice Questions

FS - 57

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