You are on page 1of 58

Your Teacher for this session !

ce
MS. JAVERIA SHABBIR
Who Are Managers?
Manager
Someone who
works with and
through other people
by coordinating
their work activities
in order to
accomplish
organizational goals

Types of Managers
Non-managerial Employees
Managed by First -Line Managers at the lowest level of
management
First-line Managers
Are at the lowest level of management and manage the work
of non-managerial employees
Middle Managers
Manage the work of first-line managers
Top Managers
Are responsible for making organization-wide decisions and
establishing plans and goals that affect the entire organization

Exhibit 1.1 Managerial Levels
Top
Managers
Middle Managers
First-Line Managers
Nonmanagerial Employees
Where Managers Work
Organization
A consciously coordinated social unit,
composed of two or more people, that
functions on a relatively continuous basis to
achieve a common goal or set of goals.
Definition of Management:

Management is the process of designing and
maintaining an environment in which individuals,
working together in groups, efficiently accomplish
selected aims

Definitions of Effectiveness and Efficiency
Managerial Concerns
Productivity implies effectiveness and efficiency in
individual and organizational performance
Effectiveness: is the achievement of objectives
Doing the right things
Attaining organizational goals
Efficiency: is the achievement of the ends with the
least amount of resources (time, money, etc.)
Doing things right
Getting the most output for the least input

What Managers Do
Managerial Activities
Make decisions
Allocate resources
Direct activities of others to
attain goals
Managers (or administrators)
Individuals who achieve goals through other people.





What Do Managers Do? Functional Approach







Planning
Organizing
Leading
Controlling
Management Functions (contd)
Planning
A process that includes defining
goals, establishing strategy, and
developing plans to coordinate
activities.
Organizing
Determining what tasks are to be
done, who is to do them, how the
tasks are to be grouped, who reports
to whom, and where decisions are to
be made.

Management Functions (contd)
Leading
A function that includes
motivating employees, directing
others, selecting the most
effective communication
channels, and resolving conflicts.
Controlling
Monitoring activities to ensure
they are being accomplished as
planned and correcting any
significant deviations.

Management Functions
Planning
Defining goals,
establishing
strategy, and
developing
Sub plans to
coordinate
activities
Lead to
Organizing
Determining
what needs
to be done,
how it will
be done, and
who is to do it
Leading
Directing and
motivating all
involved parties
and resolving
conflicts
Controlling
Monitoring
activities
to ensure
that they are
accomplished
as planned
Achieving the
organization s
stated
purpose
What Do Managers Do? (contd)
Skills Approach
Technical skills
Human skills
Conceptual skills

Mintzbergs Management
Roles Approach
Interpersonal Roles
Figurehead, Leader, Liaison
Informational Roles
Monitor, Disseminator,
Spokesperson
Decisional Roles
Entrepreneur, Disturbance
Handler, Resource Allocator,
Negotiator

Two
Approaches
Managerial Roles &
Skills
.
What Do Managers Do? (contd
Mintzbergs
Management Roles
Approach
Interpersonal Roles
Figurehead, Leader,
Liaison
Informational Roles
Monitor, Disseminator,
Spokesperson
Decisional Roles
Entrepreneur,
Disturbance Handler,
Resource Allocator,
Negotiator

Management Skills
Technical skills
The ability to apply specialized
knowledge or expertise.
Human skills
The ability to work with, understand,
and motivate other people, both
individually and in groups.
Conceptual Skills
The mental ability to analyze and
diagnose complex situations.
Management: Definition
Acc to Harold Koontz: Management is the art of
getting things done through & with an formally
organized group
Acc to Henry Fayol: To manage is to forecast & plan,
to organize, to compound, to co-ordinate and to
control
PODSCORB:
- Planning, Organizing, Directing, Staffing,
Controlling, Co-ordinating, Reporting &
Budgeting
Importance of Management
Management meet the challenge of change
Accomplishment of group goals
Effective utilization of resources
Effective functioning of business
Resource Development
Sound organization Structure
Management directs the organization
Integrates various interests
Stability

Importance of Management
Innovation
Co-ordination and team-spirit
Tackling problems
A tool for Personality Development
What Is Organizational
Behaviour?
1. What is organizational behaviour?
2. Isnt organizational behaviour common sense?
Or just like psychology?
3. How does knowing about organizational
behaviour make work and life more
understandable?
4. What challenges do managers and employees
face in the workplace of the twenty-first
century?
A Changing Workplace

How Companies are Changing
Cool Companies
Believe casual days are progressive
Believe titles are obsolete
Don't impose on employees'
personal time
Allow staff to come and go as they
please
Offer all employees stock options
Let employees make decisions that
affect their work
Offer assistance with childcare
Have minimal bureaucracy (red
tape)

Old Companies
Think casual Fridays are pitiful
Charge employees for perks and
incentives
Hold events on employee time
Have flex time: but only between
7:30 a.m. and 6:30 p.m.
Hide financial results from their
employees
Encourage employee input -- but
rarely act on it
Employ rigid hierarchies (chain of
command)
Stop at open door policies

Exhibit 1-1 Challenges Facing the
Workplace
Work place
Organizational Level

Productivity

Developing effective employees

Global competition

Managing in the global village
Group Level

Working with others


Workforce diversity
Individual Level

Job satisfaction

Empowerment


Behaving ethically
Todays Challenges
in the Workplace
Challenges at the Organizational Level
Productivity
Effectiveness
Efficiency
Developing Effective Employees
Organizational Citizenship Behaviour (OCB)
Discretionary behaviour that is not part of an employees
formal job requirements, but that nevertheless
promotes the effective functioning of the organization.
Putting People First
committed workforce and positively affects the
bottom line.
more control and say in their work.
How do you Put people first?

Global Competition
In recent years, businesses have faced tough
international competition, as well as from other
companies within our borders.
For effectiveness and competitiveness organizations
are forced to examine cost efficiencies, structure, job
design, human capital.
Forced to increase productivity, improve quality.
Technology
Startups turning in global
companies .
Women are joining from
homes
Retired workforce and
children have more access
to jobs ?
Knowledgeable consumer
Constant adaptability
causing stress and
obsolesce risk to firms.

Merging And Acquiring
Merging and Acquiring for many organizations
Aim is to increase market share and profitability


Managing and Working in a
Multicultural World
Managers and employees must become capable of
working with people from different cultures:
even with
Jews
Muslims
Christens
Women who compete
And...(plz state your phobias )


Organizational structure
Organizations have become leaner , meaner and
ultimately much flatter.
How?
Lean is all about customer focus. Value is defined by
the customer and we develop and maintain processes
to provide this value. Processes are run by people.
Tools: Leader standard work, visual control boards,
and daily accountability
Work Life Balance
The rate of change
Globalization, unpredictable environment
& evolving !
Long term & short term plans !
Increased competition
Strategic, Structural, and
Operational changes in Firms
Increased ethical and social
responsibility
Miss Bradley Manning got 35 years sentence
Mr. Edward Snowden now in Russia

What we need to know !
Defining Organizational Behavior
OB: Making Sense of Behavior in Organizations
How Will Knowing OB Make a Difference?
How does knowing about organizational behavior
make work and life more understandable?
Isnt organizational behavior common sense? Or just
like psychology?(but then common sense is not so
common!)
Todays Challenges in the Workplace???
What challenges do managers and employees face in
the workplace of the twenty-first century?

Organizational Behaviour
. . . a field of study that investigates how
individuals, groups and structure affect and are
affected by behaviour within organizations, for the
purpose of applying such knowledge toward
improving an organizations effectiveness.
It is the objective of this discipline to help members of
organisations better understand themselves and those
with whom they interact.
topics include: Individual perceptions, sources of motivation and
individual needs, job satisfaction, group behaviour, diversity in the
workplace, conflict management, leadership, politics and power,
organizational change, and negotiation .
Why Do We Study OB?
To learn about yourself and others
To understand how the many organizations, you
encounter actually work.
To become familiar with team work
To help you think about the people issues faced by
managers and entrepreneurs
Exhibit 1-4
The Layers of OB
The Organization
Negotiation
Conflict
Communication
Groups and teams
Power and politics
The Group
Emotions
Values and attitudes
Perception
Personality
Motivating self and others
The Individual
Change
Organizational culture
Decision making
Leadership
Groups and teams
How Will Knowing OB Make a
Difference?
For Managers
For Individuals
Organizations
The thoroughness of OB
OB looks at consistencies
OB is more than common sense
OB has few absolutes
OB takes a contingency approach




Towards an OB Discipline

Social psychology
Psychology
Behavioural
science
Contribution Unit of
analysis
Output
Anthropology
Sociology
Political science
Study of
Organizational
Behaviour
Organization
system
Learning
Motivation
Perception
Training
Leadership effectiveness
Job satisfaction
Individual decision making
Performance appraisal
Attitude measurement
Employee selection
Work design
Work stress
Group dynamics
Work teams
Communication
Power
Conflict
Intergroup behaviour
Formal organization theory
Organizational technology
Organizational change
Organizational culture
Conflict
Intraorganizational politics
Power
Organizational culture
Organizational environment
Behavioural change
Attitude change
Communication
Group processes
Group decision making
Group
Comparative values
Comparative attitudes
Cross-cultural analysis
Individual
Bottom Line: OB Is For
Everyone
Organizational behaviour is not just for managers.
HOW?
Impacts friendships and families
OB applies equally well to all situations in which
you interact with others: on the basketball court,
at the grocery store, in school, or in church.
Summary and Implications
OB is a field of study that investigates the impact
that individuals, groups, and structure have on
behaviour within an organization.
OB focuses on improving productivity, reducing
absenteeism and turnover, and increasing
employee job satisfaction and organizational
commitment.
OB uses systematic study to improve predictions of
behaviour.