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CCCS

How does fresh water flow on Earth?


Wheres Water? -Surface Water
Rivers, Lakes, and Ponds

River Systems
The streams and smaller rivers that feed into
a main river are called tributaries
Tributaries flow downward toward the main
river, pulled by the force of gravity
A river and all its tributaries together make
up a river system
River Features
Headwaters
Tributaries
Flood plain
Oxbow lake
Meander
Mouth
Delta
Estuary
River Features
The many small streams that come together
at the source (beginning) of a river are
called its headwaters
The steep slope of the land causes the river
to flow quickly
Headwater
River Features
Meanders-looping curves in a river
Meanders can curve back on themselves.
The river may then cut a new, straight
course, eventually leaving an oxbow lake
Horseshoe
Bend
of the Colorado River

Ox Bow lake on Mississippi
River Features
The broad, flat valley through which a river
flows is its flood plain
River Features
The mouth of a river is where the river
flows into another body of water
A delta is created when the river slows
down and deposits the sediment it was
carrying
Delta Formation
DEPOSITON OF MATERIAL BY THE RIVER
WHEN IT ENTERS THE SEA
Mississippi Delta from Space
MISSISSIPPI
Watersheds
The land area that supplies water to a river
system is called a watershed
Watersheds are sometimes known as
drainage basins
Montclair is in the Hackensack-Passaic
Watershed
Divides
A ridge of land that separates one watershed
from another is called a divide
Mountains are an example of a divide

Divides
Estuaries
An estuary is a
coastal inlet or
bay where fresh
water from rivers
mix with salty
ocean water

Surface Water Part II:
Ponds and Lakes
Ponds
Ponds are
freshwater
Ponds are shallow
Ponds form when
water collects in
low-lying areas of
land
Plants grow at the
bottom of ponds


Lakes
Lakes are
freshwater
Lakes are deep
Lakes form when
water collects in
low-lying areas of
land
Plants do not grow
at the bottom of
deep lakes

Lake Baikal, Russia
Lake Formation
Lakes can be formed by natural processes or
human efforts:
1. Volcanic lakes
2. Glacier- made lakes
3. Human- made lakes

A lake that stores water for human use
is called a reservoir
Volcanic Lake
Glacier-Made Lakes

Human-Made Lakes
Lakes Can Change
Seasonal changes- water
temperature at different depths
changes during the year
Lake turnover-nutrients mix
Nutrients-substances such as
nitrogen and phosphorus that
plants and algae grow

Lakes Can Change
Long-term changes
Eutrophication-Algae and scum
forms on the surface of the water
becomes so thick that it blocks out
sunlight and plants cannot carry out
photosynthesis
Death of a body of fresh water

Eutrophication
Eutrophication
Ponds and Lakes
SAME
Freshwater
Still, standing water
Form when water
collects in hollows and
low-lying areas of land

DIFFERENT
Lakes are deeper
Plants dont grow at
the bottom of deep
lakes
Sunlight cannot reach
the bottom of a deep
lake and
photosynthesis cannot
occur

Crater Lake and Lake Nyos Links
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crater_lake
http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/sto
ries/august/21/newsid_3380000/3380803.st
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