=
+
=
n
j
j j
j
M D a A D
1
1 1
1
) ( . . ) 1 ( ) (
Definition
nn n n
n
n
a a a
a a a
a a a
A D
...
... ... ... ...
...
...
) (
2 1
2 22 21
1 12 11
=
Contents
Definition
Properties
Inverse matrix
Cramers system of linear equations
Properties
1) A
t
is transpose matrix of A:
D(A
t
) = D(A)
2) when we exchange 2 rows of A, we
obtain B:
D(B) = D(A)
3) Its value is 0 on any matrix having two
equal rows or two equal columns;
Properties
4) It is linear as a function of each rows of the
matrix:
It is also linear as a function of each column
of the matrix:
=
+
+ +
=
+ + =
n
j
ij ij
j i
in in
n
i i i i
i
M D a A D
M D a M D a M D a A D
1
1
2 2 1 1
1
) ( ) 1 ( ) (
)] ( ) 1 ( ... ) ( ) ( [ ) 1 ( ) (
=
+
+ +
=
+ + =
n
i
ij ij
j i
nj nj
n
j j j j
j
M D a A D
M D a M D a M D a A D
1
1
2 2 1 1
1
) ( ) 1 ( ) (
)] ( ) 1 ( ... ) ( ) ( [ ) 1 ( ) (
Properties
5) Its value on matrix having zero row (or
column) is 0.
6) We apply scalar multiplication operation in
one row to obtain matrix B from A, then:
D(B) = k.D(A)
7) Its value on matrix having two dependent
rows (or columns) is 0.
Properties
8) If all elements of a row (or column) are the
sum of two numbers, then determinant can
be expressed as sum of two determinants.
9) If matrix has a row (or column) being linear
combination of other rows (or other columns),
its determinant is 0.
23 21
13 11
22 21
12 11
23 22 21
13 12 11
a a
a a
a a
a a
a a a
a a a
+ =
+
+
Properties
10) Its value keeps constant if we add k times
a row into another row (or add k times a
column into another column).
11) Its value on triangle matrix is product of
all elements on main diagonal.
nn
nn n n nn
n
n
a a a
a a a
a a
a
a
a a
a a a
A D ...
...
... ... ... ...
0 ...
0 ... 0
... 0 0
... ... ... ...
... 0
...
) (
22 11
2 1
22 21
11
2 22
1 12 11
= = =
How to calculate the determinants ?
We can use 3 elementary row operations:
Multiply one row by a
nonzero scalar k
Interchange of two
rows
Add a scalar multiple
of one row to another
row
1. > k.D(A)
2. > D(A)
3. > D(A)
(
(
(
=
3 4 0
8 1 2
5 3 1
A
int determinant (int b[5][5],int m) {
int i,j,sum = 0,c[5][5];
if (m==2) {
sum = b[0][0]*b[1][1]  b[0][1]*b[1][0];
return sum;
}
for (int p=0;p<m;p++) {
int h = 0,k = 0;
for (i=1;i<m;i++) {
for ( j=0;j<m;j++) {
if (j==p) continue;
c[h][k] = b[i][j];
k++;
if (k == m1) {
h++;
k = 0;
} } }
sum = sum + b[0][p]*pow(1,p)*determinant(c,m1);
}
return sum;
}
We can use Excel
MDETERM ()
Theorem
Let A,B be nxn matrix.
det(AB) = det(A).det(B)
Contents
Definition
Properties
Inverse matrix
Cramers system of linear equations
Inverse matrix
Theorem:
If det (A) 0 then A has inverse A
1
:
ij ij
j i
ij
ij ij
nn n n
n
n
t
a of cof actor D C
M D where
C C C
C C C
C C C
A
C
A
A
: . ) 1 (
) det(
...
... ... ... ...
...
...
) det(
1
) det(
1
2 1
2 22 12
1 21 11
1
+
=
=
(
(
(
(
= =
Proof
Reading
Inverse matrix: 5 steps
1. Compute det (A) 0
2. Find the cofactor of each element
3. Find the adjoint matrix
) det( , . ) 1 (
ij ij ij
j i
ij
M D where D C = =
+
(
(
(
(
=
nn n n
n
n
C C C
C C C
C C C
C
...
... ... ... ...
...
...
2 1
2 22 21
1 12 11
4. Find the transpose of the adjoint matrix
5. Divided by det A
(
(
(
(
= =
nn n n
n
n
t
C C C
C C C
C C C
A
C
A
A
...
... ... ... ...
...
...
) det(
1
) det(
1
2 1
2 22 12
1 21 11
1
(
(
(
(
=
nn n n
n
n
t
C C C
C C C
C C C
C
...
... ... ... ...
...
...
2 1
2 22 12
1 21 11
Example 1
(
(
(
=
(
(
(
=
= = =
= = = =


.

\

(
= =


.

\

(
= =
= =
(
(
(
+ +
1 2 5
3 5 13
9 16 40
1
1
1 3 9
2 5 16
5 13 40
1 , 3 , 9
2 , 5 , 16 , 5
,
8 1
3 2
. ) 1 ( 13 ,
8 0
3 5
. ) 1 ( 40
0 1 ) det( ,
8 0 1
3 5 2
3 2 1
1
33 32 31
23 22 21 13
2 1
12
1 1
11
t
C A C
C C C
C C C C
D C D C
A A
Example 2
(
=
(
=
(
=
(
=
= =
(
a c
b d
C
a b
c d
C C
C C
C because
a c
b d
bc ad
A
bc ad A
d c
b a
A
t
22 21
12 11
1
1
: 0 ) det( ,
We can use Excel
MINVERSE ()
Contents
Definition
Properties
Inverse matrix
Cramers system of linear equations
System of linear equations
Matrix form
Anxn matrix of coefficients : square matrix
(m=n)
If det (A) 0: we call Cramer system
Cramers theorem
A
A
x
i
i
det
det
=
Cramer system has unique root calculated by
x = A
1
y, it means:
where Ai is obtained from A by replacing i
th
column by matrix y.
Proof: reading
Example 3
44
152
,
44
72
,
44
40
:
152 ) det( , 72 ) det( , 40 ) det( , 44 ) det(
8 2 1
30 4 3
6 0 1
,
3 8 1
6 30 3
2 6 1
,
3 2 8
6 4 30
2 0 6
8
30
6
,
3 2 1
6 4 3
2 0 1
8 3 2
30 6 4 3
6 2
3 2 1
3 2 1
3 2 1
3 2 1
3 2 1
3 1
= = =
= = = =
(
(
(
=
(
(
(
=
(
(
(
=
(
(
(
=
(
(
(
= +
= + +
= +
x x x
is root So
A A A A
A A A
y A
x x x
x x x
x x
Thank you for your attention.
Thats all for today.