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# Determinants

## Ms Do Thi Phuong Thao

Fall 2012
Learning resource
Kenneth Hoffman, Linear Algebra, 2nd
Edition, Prentice Hall
Contents
Definition
Properties
Inverse matrix
Cramers system of linear equations
Determinant function
What is the condition that a system of linear
equations has a root?
What are the domain and range?
Is it 1 to 1 function?

Definition
Let A be a square matrix nxn. Determinant of A,
denoted by D(A) or det A or det(A), is function of
matrix defined step by step:
If n=1: A = [a11] and D(A) = a11
If n=2: D(A) = a11.D(M11) a12.D(M12)
D(A) = a11a22-a12a21
Other case:
D(A) = a11.D(M11) a12.D(M12)++(-1)
n+1
a1n.D(M1n)

where M
ij
is the (n-1)x(n-1) matrix obtained by deleting the i
th

row and j
th
column of A.

=
+
=
n
j
j j
j
M D a A D
1
1 1
1
) ( . . ) 1 ( ) (
Definition

nn n n
n
n
a a a
a a a
a a a
A D
...
... ... ... ...
...
...
) (
2 1
2 22 21
1 12 11
=
Contents
Definition
Properties
Inverse matrix
Cramers system of linear equations

Properties
1) A
t
is transpose matrix of A:
D(A
t
) = D(A)
2) when we exchange 2 rows of A, we
obtain B:
D(B) = -D(A)
3) Its value is 0 on any matrix having two
equal rows or two equal columns;

Properties
4) It is linear as a function of each rows of the
matrix:

It is also linear as a function of each column
of the matrix:

=
+
+ +
=
+ + =
n
j
ij ij
j i
in in
n
i i i i
i
M D a A D
M D a M D a M D a A D
1
1
2 2 1 1
1
) ( ) 1 ( ) (
)] ( ) 1 ( ... ) ( ) ( [ ) 1 ( ) (

=
+
+ +
=
+ + =
n
i
ij ij
j i
nj nj
n
j j j j
j
M D a A D
M D a M D a M D a A D
1
1
2 2 1 1
1
) ( ) 1 ( ) (
)] ( ) 1 ( ... ) ( ) ( [ ) 1 ( ) (
Properties
5) Its value on matrix having zero row (or
column) is 0.
6) We apply scalar multiplication operation in
one row to obtain matrix B from A, then:
D(B) = k.D(A)
7) Its value on matrix having two dependent
rows (or columns) is 0.

Properties
8) If all elements of a row (or column) are the
sum of two numbers, then determinant can
be expressed as sum of two determinants.

9) If matrix has a row (or column) being linear
combination of other rows (or other columns),
its determinant is 0.

23 21
13 11
22 21
12 11
23 22 21
13 12 11
a a
a a
a a
a a
a a a
a a a
+ =
+
+
Properties
10) Its value keeps constant if we add k times
a row into another row (or add k times a
column into another column).
11) Its value on triangle matrix is product of
all elements on main diagonal.
nn
nn n n nn
n
n
a a a
a a a
a a
a
a
a a
a a a
A D ...
...
... ... ... ...
0 ...
0 ... 0
... 0 0
... ... ... ...
... 0
...
) (
22 11
2 1
22 21
11
2 22
1 12 11
= = =
How to calculate the determinants ?
We can use 3 elementary row operations:
Multiply one row by a
non-zero scalar k
Interchange of two
rows
of one row to another
row
1. -> k.D(A)

2. -> -D(A)

3. -> D(A)
(
(
(

=
3 4 0
8 1 2
5 3 1
A
int determinant (int b[5][5],int m) {
int i,j,sum = 0,c[5][5];
if (m==2) {
sum = b[0][0]*b[1][1] - b[0][1]*b[1][0];
return sum;
}
for (int p=0;p<m;p++) {
int h = 0,k = 0;
for (i=1;i<m;i++) {
for ( j=0;j<m;j++) {
if (j==p) continue;
c[h][k] = b[i][j];
k++;
if (k == m-1) {
h++;
k = 0;
} } }
sum = sum + b[0][p]*pow(-1,p)*determinant(c,m-1);
}
return sum;
}

We can use Excel
MDETERM ()
Theorem
Let A,B be nxn matrix.
det(AB) = det(A).det(B)

Contents
Definition
Properties
Inverse matrix
Cramers system of linear equations
Inverse matrix
Theorem:
If det (A) 0 then A has inverse A
-1
:
ij ij
j i
ij
ij ij
nn n n
n
n
t
a of cof actor D C
M D where
C C C
C C C
C C C
A
C
A
A
: . ) 1 (
) det(
...
... ... ... ...
...
...
) det(
1
) det(
1
2 1
2 22 12
1 21 11
1
+

=
=
(
(
(
(

= =
Proof
Inverse matrix: 5 steps
1. Compute det (A) 0
2. Find the cofactor of each element

) det( , . ) 1 (
ij ij ij
j i
ij
M D where D C = =
+
(
(
(
(

=
nn n n
n
n
C C C
C C C
C C C
C
...
... ... ... ...
...
...
2 1
2 22 21
1 12 11
4. Find the transpose of the adjoint matrix

5. Divided by det A

(
(
(
(

= =

nn n n
n
n
t
C C C
C C C
C C C
A
C
A
A
...
... ... ... ...
...
...
) det(
1
) det(
1
2 1
2 22 12
1 21 11
1
(
(
(
(

=
nn n n
n
n
t
C C C
C C C
C C C
C
...
... ... ... ...
...
...
2 1
2 22 12
1 21 11
Example 1
(
(
(

=
(
(
(

=
= = =
= = = =
|
|
.
|

\
|
(

= =
|
|
.
|

\
|
(

= =
= =
(
(
(

+ +
1 2 5
3 5 13
9 16 40
1
1
1 3 9
2 5 16
5 13 40
1 , 3 , 9
2 , 5 , 16 , 5
,
8 1
3 2
. ) 1 ( 13 ,
8 0
3 5
. ) 1 ( 40
0 1 ) det( ,
8 0 1
3 5 2
3 2 1
1
33 32 31
23 22 21 13
2 1
12
1 1
11
t
C A C
C C C
C C C C
D C D C
A A
Example 2
(

=
(

=
(

=
(

=
= =
(

a c
b d
C
a b
c d
C C
C C
C because
a c
b d
A
d c
b a
A
t
22 21
12 11
1
1
: 0 ) det( ,
We can use Excel
MINVERSE ()
Contents
Definition
Properties
Inverse matrix
Cramers system of linear equations
System of linear equations

Matrix form
Anxn matrix of coefficients : square matrix
(m=n)
If det (A) 0: we call Cramer system
Cramers theorem
A
A
x
i
i
det
det
=
Cramer system has unique root calculated by
x = A
-1
y, it means:

where Ai is obtained from A by replacing i
th

column by matrix y.
Example 3
44
152
,
44
72
,
44
40
:
152 ) det( , 72 ) det( , 40 ) det( , 44 ) det(
8 2 1
30 4 3
6 0 1
,
3 8 1
6 30 3
2 6 1
,
3 2 8
6 4 30
2 0 6
8
30
6
,
3 2 1
6 4 3
2 0 1
8 3 2
30 6 4 3
6 2
3 2 1
3 2 1
3 2 1
3 2 1
3 2 1
3 1
= = =
= = = =
(
(
(

=
(
(
(

=
(
(
(

=
(
(
(

=
(
(
(

= +
= + +
= +
x x x
is root So
A A A A
A A A
y A
x x x
x x x
x x