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9-1 2011 Pearson Canada Inc.

9 Chapter
Developing
Information Systems
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Management Information Systems
Chapter 9 Developing Information Systems
LEARNING OBJECTIVES
After reading this chapter, you will be able to answer the
following questions:
1. How does developing new information systems
produce organizational change?
2. What are the core activities in the information
systems development process?
3. What are the principal methodologies for modelling
and designing information systems?
4. What are the alternative methodologies for
developing information systems?
5. What are new approaches for information systems
development in the digital firm era?
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Management Information Systems
Chapter 9 Developing Information Systems
Protecting Patients by Tracking Instruments
Problem: Inefficient tracking system for instruments
at a hospital
Solutions: Eliminate manual tracking of instruments,
implement database, and allow for instruments to be
budgeted for, and tracking
Alex Gold Software increased efficiency and reduced
errors in instrument tracking process.
Demonstrates ITs role in updating traditional
business processes.
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Management Information Systems
Chapter 9 Developing Information Systems
Systems as Planned Organizational Change


Degrees of organizational change
Automation: Mechanizing procedures to speed up
the performance of existing tasks
Rationalization of procedures: The streamlining of
standard operating procedures
Business process reengineering: Redesign of
business processes to reorganize workflows and
reduce waste and repetitive tasks
Paradigm shift: Radical reconceptualization of the
nature of the both the business and the
organization
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Management Information Systems
Chapter 9 Developing Information Systems
Systems as Planned Organizational Change
Figure 9-1
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Management Information Systems
Chapter 9 Developing Information Systems
Steps in Effective Reengineering
Select Business Processes
Strategic analysis
Identify and describe the existing processes
Identify the inputs and outputs to a business process
Identify the flow of products and/or services
Identify the network of activities and buffers in the process
Identify all resources
Identify the information structure and flow
Identify the process owners
Identify process actors and decision makers
Systems as Planned Organizational Change
Continued
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Management Information Systems
Chapter 9 Developing Information Systems
Steps in Effective Reengineering
(continued)
Understand how much processes cost and
time to perform
Think about how IT can be used improve
processes

Systems as Planned Organizational Change
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Management Information Systems
Chapter 9 Developing Information Systems
Process Improvement: Business Process Management,
Total Quality Management, and Six Sigma
Business Process Management (BPM): Methodology
and tools for revising the organizations business
processes enabling continual improvements.
Includes:
Workflow management
Business process modelling
Quality management
Change management

Systems as Planned Organizational Change
Continued
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Management Information Systems
Chapter 9 Developing Information Systems
Process Improvement: Business Process
Management, Total Quality Management, and
Six Sigma (continued)
Total Quality Management (TQM)
Quality is the responsibility of all people and
functions within an organization
Six Sigma
Measure of quality (3.4 defects per million
opportunities)

Systems as Planned Organizational Change
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Management Information Systems
Chapter 9 Developing Information Systems
Overview of Systems Development
Systems analysis
Establishing information requirements
Systems design
Describes how the system will meet information
requirements
Completing the systems development process
Programming
Testing
Conversion
Production and Maintenance
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Management Information Systems
Chapter 9 Developing Information Systems
The Systems Development Process
Figure 9-2
Building a system can be broken down into six core activities.
Overview of Systems Development
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Management Information Systems
Chapter 9 Developing Information Systems
Overview of Systems Development
Systems analysis: The analysis of a problem
that the organization will try to solve with an
information system
Feasibility study: determine whether the solution is
achievable, given the organizations resources and
constraints
Establish information requirements: who needs
what information, where, when, and how

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Management Information Systems
Chapter 9 Developing Information Systems
Overview of Systems Development
Systems design: shows how an information
system will fulfill the objectives determined
during systems analysis
The role of end users: Users must have sufficient
control over the design process to ensure that the
system reflects their business priorities and
information needs
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Management Information Systems
Chapter 9 Developing Information Systems
Overview of Systems Development
Completing the systems development process
Programming:
Translating the system specifications prepared
during the design stage into program code
Testing:
Determine whether the system produces the
desired results under known conditions
Continued
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Management Information Systems
Chapter 9 Developing Information Systems
Overview of Systems Development
Completing the systems development process
(continued)
Testing:
Unit testing (program testing): Testing each program
separately in the system
System testing: Testing the information system as a
whole to determine if discrete modules function
together as planned
Acceptance testing: Provides the final certification
that the system is ready to be used in a production
setting
Continued
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Management Information Systems
Chapter 9 Developing Information Systems
Overview of Systems Development
Figure 9-3
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Management Information Systems
Chapter 9 Developing Information Systems
Overview of Systems Development
Completing the systems development process
(continued)
Conversion: Moving from the old system to the new
system
Parallel Strategy
Direct Cutover Strategy
Pilot Study
Phased Approach

Production and Maintenance
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Management Information Systems
Chapter 9 Developing Information Systems
Read the Window on Organizations, and then discuss the
following questions:
1. Compare Dorfman Pacifics old and new order-picking processes.
Diagram the processes.
2. What role did end users play in developing Dorfmans wireless
warehouse system? What would have happened to the project if
users hadnt been so involved? Explain your answer.
3. What types of system building methods and tools did Dorfman
use for building its wireless warehouse system?
4. How did the new system change the way Dorfman ran its
business?
5. What problems did the new system solve? Was it successful?
Dorfman Pacific Rolls Out a New Wireless
Warehouse
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Management Information Systems
Chapter 9 Developing Information Systems
Overview of Systems Development
Modelling and designing systems:
Structured methodologies
Object-oriented development methodologies
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Management Information Systems
Chapter 9 Developing Information Systems
Overview of Systems Development
Figure 9-4
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Management Information Systems
Chapter 9 Developing Information Systems
High-Level Structure Chart for a Payroll System
Figure 9-5
This structure chart shows the highest or most abstract level of design for a payroll system, providing an overview of the entire system.
Overview of Systems Development
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Management Information Systems
Chapter 9 Developing Information Systems
Class and Inheritance
Figure 9-6
This figure illustrates how classes inherit the common features of their superclass.
Overview of Systems Development
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Management Information Systems
Chapter 9 Developing Information Systems
Computer-aided software engineering (CASE)
Software tools to automate development and
reduce repetitive work, including
Graphics facilities for producing charts and diagrams
Screen and report generators, reporting facilities
Analysis and checking tools
Data dictionaries
Code and documentation generators
Support iterative design by automating revisions
and changes and providing prototyping facilities
Require organizational discipline to be used
effectively
Overview of Systems Development
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Management Information Systems
Chapter 9 Developing Information Systems
Alternative Systems Development Approaches
Traditional Systems Life Cycle
Prototyping
End-User Development
Application Software Packages
Outsourcing

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Management Information Systems
Chapter 9 Developing Information Systems
Traditional systems lifecycle:
Oldest method for building information systems
Phased approach - divides development into formal
stages
Follows waterfall approach: Tasks in one stage
finish before another stage begins
Maintains formal division of labor between end users
and information systems specialists
Emphasizes formal specifications and paperwork
Still used for building large complex systems
Can be costly, time-consuming, and inflexible
Alternative Systems Development Approaches
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Management Information Systems
Chapter 9 Developing Information Systems
Alternative Systems Development Approaches
Figure 9-7
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Management Information Systems
Chapter 9 Developing Information Systems
Alternative Systems Development Approaches
Prototyping
Building experimental system rapidly and
inexpensively for end users to evaluate
Prototype: Working but preliminary version of
information system
Approved prototype serves as template for
final system
Steps in prototyping
Identify user requirements
Develop initial prototype
Use prototype
Revise and enhance prototype
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Management Information Systems
Chapter 9 Developing Information Systems
Alternative Systems Development Approaches
Figure 9-8
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Management Information Systems
Chapter 9 Developing Information Systems
Alternative Systems Development Approaches
End-user development:
Uses fourth-generation languages to allow end-
users to develop systems with little or no help from
technical specialists
Fourth generation languages: Less procedural than
conventional programming languages
PC software tools
Query languages
Report generators
Graphics languages
Application generators
Application software packages
Very high-level programming languages
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Management Information Systems
Chapter 9 Developing Information Systems
Alternative Systems Development Approaches
End-user development (cont.):
Advantages:
More rapid completion of projects
High-level of user involvement and satisfaction
Disadvantages:
Not designed for processing-intensive applications
Inadequate management and control, testing, documentation
Loss of control over data
Managing end-user development
Require cost-justification of end-user system projects
Establish hardware, software, and quality standards
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Management Information Systems
Chapter 9 Developing Information Systems
Alternative Systems Development Approaches
Application software packages
Save time and money
Many packages offer customization features:
Allow software package to be modified to meet unique
requirements without destroying integrity of package software
Evaluation criteria for systems analysis include:
Functions provided by the package, flexibility, user friendliness,
hardware and software resources, database requirements,
installation and maintenance efforts, documentation, vendor
quality, and cost
Request for Proposal (RFP)
Detailed list of questions submitted to packaged-software
vendors; used to evaluate alternative software packages
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Management Information Systems
Chapter 9 Developing Information Systems
Read the Window on Management, and then discuss
the following questions:
What is the basis for vendor firms claiming they can provide
IT services more economically than a firms own IT staff?
Why is it difficult to write iron-clad legal contracts specifying
in detail strategic alliance outsourcing relationships?
Why do joint ventures and co-sourcing outsourcing
relationships have a better chance of success?
How to Get Outsourcing Right: Avoid Getting It Wrong
Application Development for the Digital Firm
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Management Information Systems
Chapter 9 Developing Information Systems
Rapid application development (RAD)
Agile Development and Extreme Programming
Component-based development and Web services
Web services and service-oriented computing

Application Development for the Digital Firm
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Management Information Systems
Chapter 9 Developing Information Systems
Application Development for the Digital Firm
Rapid application development (RAD)
Process of creating workable systems in a very
short period of time
Utilizes techniques such as:
Visual programming and other tools for
building graphical user interfaces
Iterative prototyping of key system elements
Automation of program code generation
Close teamwork among end users and
information systems specialists
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Management Information Systems
Chapter 9 Developing Information Systems
Application Development for the Digital Firm
Joint application design (JAD)
Used to accelerate generation of information
requirements and to develop initial systems
design
Brings end users and information systems
specialists together in interactive session to
discuss systems design
Can significantly speed up design phase and
involve users at intense level

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Management Information Systems
Chapter 9 Developing Information Systems
Application Development for the Digital Firm
Agile development
Focuses on rapid delivery of working software
by breaking large project into several small sub-
projects
Subprojects
Treated as separate, complete projects
Completed in short periods of time using
iteration and continuous feedback
Emphasizes face-to-face communication over
written documents, allowing collaboration and
faster decision making

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Management Information Systems
Chapter 9 Developing Information Systems
Application Development for the Digital Firm
Component-based development
Groups of objects that provide software for
common functions (e.g., online ordering) and can
be combined to create large-scale business
applications
Web services
Reusable software components that use XML and open Internet
standards (platform independent)
Enable applications to communicate with no custom
programming required to share data and services
Can engage other Web services for more complex transactions
Can result in significant cost-savings and opportunities for
collaboration with other companies
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9 Chapter
Developing
Information Systems