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EXPANSION

Thermal Expansion

It is a phenomena whereby dimensions of a substance

change as temperature changes. Generally, dimensions

increase as temperature increases ( with few exceptions).

Note: Water, in the temperature range from 0C to 4C, decreases

in volume with increasing temperature. In this range, its

coefficient of volume expansion is negative. Above 4C, water

expands. At this temperature, density is maximum.

Thermal Expansion

Amount of expansion depends on

change in temperature

original length

Nature of the substance (coefficient of thermal expansion)

Types of Expansion:

Linear Expansion : Change in Length , L = L

0

T

Area Expansion : Change in Area, A = A

0

T

Volume Expansion : Change in Volume , V = V

0

T

Temp: T

Temp: T+T

L

0

L

When temperature rises

molecules have more kinetic energy (they are moving

faster)

consequently, things tend to expand

has more internal energy

than

The amount of internal energy depends on the temperature

Concept Question

As you heat a block of aluminum from 0 C to 100 C its density

1. Increases

2. Decreases

3. Stays the same

T = 0 C

M, V

0

r

0

= M / V

0

T = 100 C

M, V

100

r

100

= M / V

100

< r

0

Concept Question

An aluminum plate has a circular hole cut in it. A copper ball (solid sphere) has

exactly the same diameter as the hole when both are at room temperature, and

hence can just barely be pushed through it. If both the plate and the ball are now

heated up to a few hundred degrees Celsius, how will the ball and the hole fit (

(aluminum) > (copper) ) ?

1. The ball wont fit through the hole any more

2. The ball will fit more easily through the hole

3. Same as at room temperature

The aluminum plate and copper ball both have

different coefficients of thermal expansion.

Aluminum has a higher coefficient than copper which

means the aluminum plate hole will expand to be

larger than the copper ball's expansion and allow

more space for the ball to pass through.

Why does the hole get bigger when the

plate expands ???

Object at temp T

Same object at higher T:

Plate and hole both get larger

Imagine a plate made from 9 smaller pieces.

Each piece expands.

If you remove one piece, it will leave an expanded hole

Thermal Stress

Stress that is developed if there is change in

temperature but change in dimension is

prevented.

Stress= F/A

Recall:

Y = stress/strain

Stress = Y (strain)

Strain = L/L

0

L = L

0

T ; L /L

0

= T

Stress = - Y T

Force,F = -Y A T

Equations:

Linear Expansion

Final length L = L

0

+L = L

0

+ L

0

T

L= L

0

(1+ T )

Area Expansion

Final Area A = A

0

+A= A

0

+ A

0

T

A= A

0

(1+ T )

Volume Expansion

Final Volume V= V

0

+V= V

0

+ V

0

T

V= V

0

(1+ T )

where; = 2 ; = 3

- coefficient of linear expansion

coefficient of area expansion

coefficient of volume expansion

Sample problems:

1.Steel rails are laid when the temperature is 15C. if the

maximum temperature expected is 45C and the length of

each rail is 10m, find the gap between successive rails. Use

steel

=11x10

-6

/C.

2. A rod of radius 1.0 cm is suspended from the ceiling at a

temperature of 50C. It is to be cooled to a temperature of -

10C. Find a) force needed to prevent contraction b) stress

developed at this condition. Consider Y = 11x10

10

N/m

2

and

=10x10

-6

/C.

Sample problems:

3. An 80 gal steel drum is filled with gasoline when the

temperature is 20C. Find the volume of gasoline that will

overflow when temperature becomes 70C. Use

steel

=11x10

-6

/C and

gasoline

= 9.6 x10

-4

/ C .

4. A certain metallic rod is found to have lengthened by 0.25%

if the temperature is increased by 1000 C . What is the

coefficient of linear expansion of the rod

Sample problems:

5. A thin brass sheet at 20C has the same surface area as a thin

steel sheet at 0C. At what common temperature if any will

the two sheets have the same area? Use

brass

= 19 x10

-6

/

C and

steel

= 10.5 x 10

-6

/ C.

6. A 50 m steel tape correctly measures distance at 10C. A

distance measured by the tape at 40C is 105.56 m. What is

the actual distance? Use

steel

= 11 x 10

-6

/ C.

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