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TEMPERATURE and THERMAL

EXPANSION


Thermal Expansion

It is a phenomena whereby dimensions of a substance
change as temperature changes. Generally, dimensions
increase as temperature increases ( with few exceptions).



Note: Water, in the temperature range from 0C to 4C, decreases
in volume with increasing temperature. In this range, its
coefficient of volume expansion is negative. Above 4C, water
expands. At this temperature, density is maximum.


Thermal Expansion
Amount of expansion depends on
change in temperature
original length
Nature of the substance (coefficient of thermal expansion)





Types of Expansion:
Linear Expansion : Change in Length , L = L
0
T
Area Expansion : Change in Area, A = A
0
T
Volume Expansion : Change in Volume , V = V
0
T









Temp: T
Temp: T+T
L
0

L
When temperature rises
molecules have more kinetic energy (they are moving
faster)
consequently, things tend to expand
has more internal energy
than
The amount of internal energy depends on the temperature
Concept Question
As you heat a block of aluminum from 0 C to 100 C its density
1. Increases
2. Decreases
3. Stays the same
T = 0 C
M, V
0
r
0
= M / V
0
T = 100 C
M, V
100
r
100
= M / V
100

< r
0
Concept Question
An aluminum plate has a circular hole cut in it. A copper ball (solid sphere) has
exactly the same diameter as the hole when both are at room temperature, and
hence can just barely be pushed through it. If both the plate and the ball are now
heated up to a few hundred degrees Celsius, how will the ball and the hole fit (
(aluminum) > (copper) ) ?
1. The ball wont fit through the hole any more
2. The ball will fit more easily through the hole
3. Same as at room temperature
The aluminum plate and copper ball both have
different coefficients of thermal expansion.
Aluminum has a higher coefficient than copper which
means the aluminum plate hole will expand to be
larger than the copper ball's expansion and allow
more space for the ball to pass through.
Why does the hole get bigger when the
plate expands ???
Object at temp T
Same object at higher T:
Plate and hole both get larger
Imagine a plate made from 9 smaller pieces.
Each piece expands.
If you remove one piece, it will leave an expanded hole

Thermal Stress
Stress that is developed if there is change in
temperature but change in dimension is
prevented.

Stress= F/A
Recall:
Y = stress/strain
Stress = Y (strain)
Strain = L/L
0
L = L
0
T ; L /L
0
= T




Stress = - Y T
Force,F = -Y A T
Equations:

Linear Expansion
Final length L = L
0
+L = L
0
+ L
0
T
L= L
0
(1+ T )
Area Expansion
Final Area A = A
0
+A= A
0
+ A
0
T
A= A
0
(1+ T )
Volume Expansion
Final Volume V= V
0
+V= V
0
+ V
0
T
V= V
0
(1+ T )
where; = 2 ; = 3
- coefficient of linear expansion
coefficient of area expansion
coefficient of volume expansion
Sample problems:
1.Steel rails are laid when the temperature is 15C. if the
maximum temperature expected is 45C and the length of
each rail is 10m, find the gap between successive rails. Use
steel
=11x10
-6
/C.

2. A rod of radius 1.0 cm is suspended from the ceiling at a
temperature of 50C. It is to be cooled to a temperature of -
10C. Find a) force needed to prevent contraction b) stress
developed at this condition. Consider Y = 11x10
10
N/m
2
and
=10x10
-6
/C.

Sample problems:
3. An 80 gal steel drum is filled with gasoline when the
temperature is 20C. Find the volume of gasoline that will
overflow when temperature becomes 70C. Use
steel

=11x10
-6
/C and
gasoline
= 9.6 x10
-4
/ C .


4. A certain metallic rod is found to have lengthened by 0.25%
if the temperature is increased by 1000 C . What is the
coefficient of linear expansion of the rod
Sample problems:
5. A thin brass sheet at 20C has the same surface area as a thin
steel sheet at 0C. At what common temperature if any will
the two sheets have the same area? Use
brass
= 19 x10
-6
/
C and

steel
= 10.5 x 10
-6
/ C.


6. A 50 m steel tape correctly measures distance at 10C. A
distance measured by the tape at 40C is 105.56 m. What is
the actual distance? Use
steel
= 11 x 10
-6
/ C.