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FEED FAST CYCLE

Lecture 15



FEED FAST CYCLE
ABSORPTIVE STATE
(FED STATE)

Two to four hours after ingestion of normal
meal
glucose, Amino acids and TAG(incorporated
with chylomicrons)
insulin - glucagon.
substrate availability - insulin/glucagon
ratio Anabolic state.
Enzyme changes in absorptive state
Flow of intermediates through metabolic
pathway is controlled by 4 mechanisms.
1. Availability of substrates( Minutes)
2. Allosteric regulation ( Minutes)
( At rate limiting steps)
3. Covalent modification of enzymes ( minutes to
hours)
Mostly dephosphoryted enzymes are Active
4. Induction repression of enzyme synthesis
(hours to Days)


LIVER
Carbohydrate Metabolism
Net consumer of glucose retains 60% of glucose
from portal system.
1. Phosphorylation of glucose
Glucokinase , high km for glucose. High km is in
absorptive state.
2. Glycogen synthesis
glycogen synthase activity by dephosphorylation
and G.6.Po4 levels
3. Activity of HMP shunt
5-10. % glucose metabolized by liver
G.6.Po4 - NADPH use in fat synthesis




4. Glycolysis - Activity of regulated
enzymes.
5. gluconeogenesis. Pyruvate carboxylase
inactive due to level of acetyl CoA which is
allosteric effector.
FAT METABOLISM
fatty acid Synthesis
Availability of substrate( Acetyl CoA + NADPH
from CHO metabolism)
Activation of Acetyl COA carboxylase by
dephosphorylation and availability of
Allosteric Activator (Citrate)
Acetyl coA Melonyl CoA
Rate limiting step/ inhibitor of fatty acid
oxidation.
carboxylase
TAG SYNTHESIS
Aceyl CoA De novo synthesis from acetyl coA
+ Hydrolysis of TAG component of
chylomicron remanant.
Glycerol.3.Po4 (Provided by glycolytic metabolism
of glucose)

TAG (VLDL)

Amino Acid Metabolism A.A Degradation
Amino acid level than liver can use in synthesis
of proteins & other nitrogen containing
compounds.
No storage for surplus A.A
Released in Blood for tissues to use in protein
synthesis. OR
Deaminated & Carbon skeletons are degraded to
pyruvate, acetyl coA and intermediates of TCA
cycle oxidized for energy production for F A
synthesis.
Limited capacity for branched chains. A.A
degradation( metabolized in muscle).
Protein synthesis
No storage of proteins in liver.
Transient increase in the synthesis of hepatic
proteins for replacement of protein degraded
in previous post absorptive period.
Adipose tissues
Energy storage depot.
70kg male -14 kg adipose tissue or half of
muscle mass.
In obesity 70% of Body weight (entire volume
of each adipocyte is occupied by a droplet of
TAG).
Carbohydrate Metabolism


glucose transport (GLUT-4). Insulin level.
glycolysis for Glycerol Po4 synthesis.
HMP shunt for NADPH Production.

FAT METABOLISM
Synthesis of Fatty Acids
From acetyl CoA is low except when refeeding after
prolonged fast.
Mostly dietary fat(chylomicrons)and VLDL from Liver.
TAG synthesis
Fatty Acids are provided by hydrolysis of TAG of
chylomicrons and VLDL.
FA released from lipoproteins by LPL in capillary
endothelium of muscle & adipose tissues. Glycerol Po4
for TAG synthesis comes from glycolysis (No GK).
TAG Degradation:
insulin dephosphorylation of hormone sensitive
lipase.




Resting Skeletal Muscle
Able to respond to substantial changes in
demand for ATP with muscle contraction.

At rest 30% of oxygen consumption of body.

During vigorous exercise 90% of total o2
consumption.

Oxidative tissue (potential for transient periods of
anaerobic glycolysis).
HEART MUSCLE SKELETAL MUSCLE
Continuously active Contracts intermittently
Completely Aerobic Both Aerobic & Anaerobic
Negligible energy stores like
glycogen & lipids.
Considerable stores of glycogen
Major metabolic pathways in skeletal
muscles during absorptive state.

Carbohydrate metabolism
transport of glucose
Glycogen synthesis

Fat Metabolism
F.A are of secondary importance as fuel for muscles
(FED state). Only glucose is the source of energy.

Amino Acid Metabolism
Protein synthesis
uptake of branched chain amino acids &
degradation( branched chain amino acid
transferase).

BRAIN
2% of adult weight/ receives 15% of cardiac output.
20% of basal oxygen consumption at rest and consumes 25%
of total Glucose.
Glucose uptake is by GLUT 3,4
Glycogen stores are minimal so continuous supply of glucose
is essential.
In hypoglycemia severe and irreversible damage can occur.