Database Concepts

Database -- An organized collection of logically related data. Data -- Facts, text, graphic, images, sound and video segments that have meaning in user’s environment. Rohit Gandhi 3564345 35 Tushar Solanki 6754567 87 Shipra Singh 3467809 76

Information – Data that have been processed in such a way as to increase the knowledge of the person who uses the data.
place data in context summarize data
Class Roster Course: MBA Finance Session : Spring/Summer07 Section: FN2 Name ID Score Rohit Gandhi 3564345 35 Tushar Solanki 6754567 87 Shipra Singh 3467809 76

E nrollme nt D e tails
350 Number of Students 300 250 200 150 100 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 Ye a r s


Pe rce ntage Enrollm e nt by M ajor HR 21% Finance Finance 46% IT HR IT 33%

Data that describes the properties characteristics of other data. Data Item Name Type Course Character 30 Section Integer 1 Semester Character 10 Name Character 30 ID Integer 9 Major Character 4 GPA Integer 3 Value Length Min 1 9 Max Description Course ID Section Number Semester & Year Student Name Student ID Student Major Grade Percentage

Importance of DBMS
• It helps make data management more efficient and effective. • Its query language allows quick answers to ad hoc queries. • It provides end users better access to more and better-managed data. • It promotes an integrated view of organization’s operations -- “big picture.” • It reduces the probability of inconsistent data.

Why Database Design Is Important? • A well-designed database facilitates
data management and becomes a valuable information generator. • A poorly designed database is a breeding ground for uncontrolled data redundancies. • A poorly designed database generates errors that lead to bad decisions.

Basic File Terminology
• Data – Raw facts and figures • Field – A character or group of characters that have a special meaning • Record – A logically connected set of one or more fields that describe a person place or a thing • File – A collection of related records


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Name Ajay Abhay

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Terms and Concepts
• Data independence
– Physical representation and location of data and the use of that data are separated

• Data redundancy
– Duplication of data

• Data Consistency • Data Integrity
– no records are duplicated

• Data Sharing

Applications of Database
• Banking For customer information, loans and banking transactions • Airlines For reservation and schedule information • Universities For student information, course registration and grades • Credit Card Transactions For purchases on card and generation of monthly bills • Telecommunications For keeping records of calls and generating bills

Applications of Database
• Finance For storing information about holding, sale and purchase of stocks and bonds • Sales For customer, Product and Sale information • Manufacturing For management of Supply Chain, inventories and tracking Production • Human Resource For Information about employees, salary, payroll taxes generation of paychecks

The Database System Components
• Hardware – Computer – Peripherals • Software – Operating systems software – DBMS software – Applications programs and utilities software

The Database System Components
• People – Systems administrators – Database administrators (DBAs) – Database designers – Systems analysts and programmers – End users • Procedures – Instructions and rules that govern the design and use of the database system • Data – Collection of facts stored in the database

• A Database Management System consists of interrelated data and a collection of programs to access that data.

Primary Key / Foreign Key
• The field which uniquely identify a record is a Primary Key of that file • A field which is a Primary key of another file is called a Foreign Key Roll No Batch No Name Year Batch No Room No Date of Birth

DBMS Benefits
• Minimal data redundancy • Consistency of data • Integration of data • Sharing of data • Ease of application development • Uniform security, privacy, and integrity controls • Data accessibility and responsiveness • Data independence • Reduced program maintenance

Types of Database Systems
• PC databases • Centralized database • Client/server databases • Distributed databases • Database models

PC Databases
E.g.: Access FoxPro Dbase etc.

Centralized Databases

Central Computer

Client Server Databases


Network Database Server Client

Distributed Databases
Location B

Location C



computer Location A

Homogeneous Databases

Distributed Databases
Remote Comp.

Local Network Comm Server Client
Remote Comp.

Database Structure
• Hierarchical Structure • Network Structure • Relational Structure • Multi dimension Structure • Object-Oriented Structure

Hierarchical Structure
Early mainframe DBMS packages used the hierarchical structure • Relationships between records form a hierarchy or treelike structure • Records are dependent and arranged in multilevel structures, - one root record and any number of subordinate levels

Hierarchical Structure
• Relationships among the records are one-tomany • each data element is related only to one element above it • Data element or record at the highest level of the hierarchy is called the root element • Moving progressively downward from the root and along the branches of the tree until the desired record is located can access any data element

Network Structure
• Can represent more complex logical relationships, and is still used by many mainframe DBMS packages • Allows many-to-many relationships among records. • The network model can access a data element by following one of several paths any data element or record can be related to any number of other data elements

Relational Structure
• most popular database structure • Used by most microcomputer many minicomputer & mainframe systems • Data elements are stored in the form of simple tables. Tables are related if they contain common fields • can link data elements from various tables to provide information to users

Multidimension Structure
• variation of the relational model - uses multidimensional structures to store data and relationships between data • they are a compact and easy-tounderstand way to visualize and manipulate data elements that have many interrelationships. • most popular database structure for the analytical databases that support online analytical processing (OLAP) applications

Object-Oriented Structure
• one of the key technologies of a new generation of multimedia web-based applications • data values describing the attributes of an entity plus the operations that can be performed upon the data • this encapsulation capability allows the object-oriented model to better handle more complex types of data (graphics, voice, text) than other database structures

Object-Oriented Structure
• Supports inheritance- new objects can be automatically created by replicating some or all of the characteristics of one or more parent objects • popular in computer-aided design (CAD) applications
– Designers can develop product designs, store them as objects in an object-oriented database, and replicate and modify them to create new product designs

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