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Database

Concepts
Database
Database -- An organized collection of logically
related data.
Data -- Facts, text, graphic, images, sound and video
segments that have meaning in user’s environment.

Rohit Gandhi 3564345 35


Tushar Solanki 6754567 87
Shipra Singh 3467809 76
Information – Data that have been processed in
such a way as to increase the knowledge of
the person who uses the data.
place data in context
summarize data

Class Roster
Course: MBA Finance Session : Spring/Summer07
Section: FN2
Name ID Score
Rohit Gandhi 3564345 35
Tushar Solanki 6754567 87
Shipra Singh 3467809 76
E nrollme nt D e tails

350
Information
300
Number of Students

250

200

150

100
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007
Ye a r s

Pe rce ntage Enrollm e nt by M ajor

HR
21%
Finance
Finance
46% IT
HR
IT
33%
Metadata

Data that describes the properties characteristics of other


data.

Data Item Value


Name Type Length Min Max Description
Course Character 30 Course ID
Section Integer 1 1 9 Section Number
Semester Character 10 Semester & Year
Name Character 30 Student Name
ID Integer 9 Student ID
Major Character 4 Student Major
GPA Integer 3 Grade Percentage
Importance of DBMS
• It helps make data management more
efficient and effective.
• Its query language allows quick answers
to ad hoc queries.
• It provides end users better access to
more and better-managed data.
• It promotes an integrated view of
organization’s operations -- “big picture.”
• It reduces the probability of inconsistent
data.
Why Database Design Is
Important?
• A well-designed database facilitates
data management and becomes a
valuable information generator.
• A poorly designed database is a
breeding ground for uncontrolled data
redundancies.
• A poorly designed database generates
errors that lead to bad decisions.
Basic File Terminology
• Data – Raw facts and figures
• Field – A character or group of
characters that have a special meaning
• Record – A logically connected set of
one or more fields that describe a
person place or a thing
• File – A collection of related records
Field
R No. Name Marks
1 Ajay 75
File
Character
2 Abhay 90

Record
Terms and Concepts
• Data independence
– Physical representation and location of data and
the use of that data are separated
• Data redundancy
– Duplication of data
• Data Consistency
• Data Integrity
– no records are duplicated
• Data Sharing
Applications of Database
• Banking For customer information, loans and
banking transactions
• Airlines For reservation and schedule
information
• Universities For student information, course
registration and grades
• Credit Card Transactions For purchases on
card and generation of monthly bills
• Telecommunications For keeping records of
calls and generating bills
Applications of Database
• Finance For storing information about holding,
sale and purchase of stocks and bonds
• Sales For customer, Product and Sale information
• Manufacturing For management of Supply Chain,
inventories and tracking Production
• Human Resource For Information about
employees, salary, payroll taxes generation of
paychecks
The Database System
Components
• Hardware
– Computer

– Peripherals

• Software
– Operating systems software

– DBMS software

– Applications programs and utilities software


The Database System Components
• People
– Systems administrators
– Database administrators (DBAs)
– Database designers
– Systems analysts and programmers
– End users

• Procedures
– Instructions and rules that govern the
design and use of the database system
• Data
– Collection of facts stored in the database
DBMS
• A Database Management System
consists of interrelated data and a
collection of programs to access that
data.
Primary Key / Foreign Key

• The field which uniquely identify a record is


a Primary Key of that file

• A field which is a Primary key of another file


is called a Foreign Key
Roll No Batch No
Name Year
Batch No Room No
Date of Birth
DBMS Benefits
• Minimal data redundancy
• Consistency of data
• Integration of data
• Sharing of data
• Ease of application development
• Uniform security, privacy, and integrity
controls
• Data accessibility and responsiveness
• Data independence
• Reduced program maintenance
Types of Database Systems
• PC databases
• Centralized database
• Client/server databases
• Distributed databases
• Database models
PC Databases

E.g.:
Access
FoxPro
Dbase etc.
Centralized Databases

Central
Computer
Client Server Databases

Client

Client
Network

Database
Server
Client
Distributed Databases

Location B
Location C

computer
computer

Homogeneous
computer Databases
Location A
Distributed Databases

Client
Remote
Comp.

Local Network

Comm
Server
Remote
Client Comp.
Database Structure
• Hierarchical Structure
• Network Structure
• Relational Structure
• Multi dimension Structure
• Object-Oriented Structure
Hierarchical Structure
Early mainframe DBMS packages used
the hierarchical structure

• Relationships between records form a


hierarchy or treelike structure
• Records are dependent and arranged in
multilevel structures, - one root record
and any number of subordinate levels
Hierarchical Structure
• Relationships among the records are one-to-
many
• each data element is related only to one
element above it
• Data element or record at the highest level
of the hierarchy is called the root element
• Moving progressively downward from the
root and along the branches of the tree until
the desired record is located can access any
data element
Network Structure
• Can represent more complex logical
relationships, and is still used by many
mainframe DBMS packages

• Allows many-to-many relationships among


records.
• The network model can access a data
element by following one of several paths -
any data element or record can be related to
any number of other data elements
Relational Structure
• most popular database structure
• Used by most microcomputer many
minicomputer & mainframe systems
• Data elements are stored in the form of
simple tables. Tables are related if they
contain common fields
• can link data elements from various tables to
provide information to users
Multidimension Structure
• variation of the relational model - uses
multidimensional structures to store data
and relationships between data
• they are a compact and easy-to-
understand way to visualize and
manipulate data elements that have many
interrelationships.
• most popular database structure for the
analytical databases that support online
analytical processing (OLAP) applications
Object-Oriented Structure
• one of the key technologies of a new
generation of multimedia web-based
applications
• data values describing the attributes of
an entity plus the operations that can be
performed upon the data
• this encapsulation capability allows the
object-oriented model to better handle
more complex types of data (graphics,
voice, text) than other database
structures
Object-Oriented Structure
• Supports inheritance- new objects can be
automatically created by replicating some or all
of the characteristics of one or more parent
objects
• popular in computer-aided design (CAD)
applications
– Designers can develop product designs, store them
as objects in an object-oriented database, and
replicate and modify them to create new product
designs