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MIS

Data, Information and Systems

Data

 A given fact , a number, a statement, or a picture


 Represents something in the real world
 Data are sets of discrete objective facts,
presented without judgment or context
 The raw materials in the production of
information



Data, Information and Systems

 Information
 Data that have meaning within a context

 Data in relationships

 Data after manipulation


 Data become information when they are


categorized, analyzed, summarized and placed
in context, becoming intelligible to the
recipient.

Data, Information and Systems

Data Manipulation


 Example: Customer Survey

 Reading through data collected from a customer


survey with questions in various categories
would be time-consuming and not very
helpful.

 When manipulated, the surveys may provide


useful information
Data, Information and Systems

 Generating Information

 Computer-based Information System take data as


raw material, process it, and produce information
as output.

Data, Information and Systems

Information is Critical

 The information we have is not what we want,



 The information we want is not the information
we need

 The information we need is not available.

Data, Information and Systems

 Why need Information?


 To ensure effective and efficient decision –


making leading to prosperity of the
Organization.

Data, Information and Systems

 The Four Stages of Data Processing



 Input: Data is collected and entered into computer.

 Data processing: Data is manipulated into


information using mathematical, statistical, and
other tools.

 Output: Information is displayed or presented.


 Feedback: Output that is used to make changes to
input or processing activities

Data, Information and Systems

 University

 Inputs: Students, Faculty, Textbooks


 Processes: Education/Courses
 Output: graduates
 Feedback: surveys, grades
Data, Information and Systems

Toyota Plant

 Inputs: raw materials, components


 Processes: assembly line
 Output: mini-vans
 Feedback: customer surveys, quality reports
Data, Information and Systems

 What is a system?

 A set of components that interact to accomplish goals


 What is an IS?
 A set of interrelated components that collect input,
process, and output data and information and
provide a feedback/control mechanism

 What is a MIS?
 An IS that uses IT. Components: hardware, software,
databases, networks, people, procedures
Historic Development AI
Artificial Intelligence
KS/ES
Knowledge / Expert System
ESS
Executive Support System
DSS
Decision Support System
MIS
Management Information System
OAS
Office Automation System
TPS
Transaction Processing System
Management Information System

 The three sub-components – MIS


 - together bring out the focus clearly & effectively.

 System emphasizing a fair degree of Integration and a


holistic view

 Information stressing on processed data in the context in


which it is used by the end user

 Management focusing on the ultimate use of such


information systems for managerial decision making

Management Information System
Management Information System
Operational Level


 Information System which monitors the
elementary activities and transaction of the
organization.
Transaction Processing System Eg.
 Operational Level System

 Sales & Marketing


 Order Tracking & Order Processing
 Manufacturing
 Plant Scheduling & Material Movement Control
 Finance
 Securities Trading & Cash Management
 Accounting
 Payroll, Accounts Payable, Accounts Receivable
 Human Resource
 Compensation Training & Development & employee record
keeping
Knowledge Level System

 Information System that support knowledge


and data workers in an organization
Knowledge Level System Eg.

 Engineering Workstation & Word Processing



 Graphic Workstation & Document Imaging

 Managerial Workstation & Electronic Calendars

Management Information System

Management Level System


 Information System which support the


monitoring controlling decision making and
administrative activities of middle
management.

Management Information System
Eg.
Sales & Marketing
 Sales Management & Sales Region Analysis
Manufacturing

 Inventory Control & Production Scheduling


Finance

 Annual Budgeting & Cost Analysis


Accounting

 Capital Investment Analysis & Profitability/Pricing


Analysis
Strategic Level System

 Information System that supports the long


range planning activities of senior managers
Strategic Level System Eg.
Executive Support System

Sales & Marketing


 5 Year Sales trend forecast
Manufacturing

 5 Year operational plan


Finance

 5 Year budgeting forecast


Accounting

 Profit Planning