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Data, Information and Systems


 A given fact , a number, a statement, or a picture

 Represents something in the real world
 Data are sets of discrete objective facts,
presented without judgment or context
 The raw materials in the production of

Data, Information and Systems

 Information
 Data that have meaning within a context

 Data in relationships

 Data after manipulation

 Data become information when they are

categorized, analyzed, summarized and placed
in context, becoming intelligible to the

Data, Information and Systems

Data Manipulation

 Example: Customer Survey

 Reading through data collected from a customer

survey with questions in various categories
would be time-consuming and not very

 When manipulated, the surveys may provide

useful information
Data, Information and Systems

 Generating Information

 Computer-based Information System take data as

raw material, process it, and produce information
as output.

Data, Information and Systems

Information is Critical

 The information we have is not what we want,

 The information we want is not the information
we need

 The information we need is not available.

Data, Information and Systems

 Why need Information?

 To ensure effective and efficient decision –

making leading to prosperity of the

Data, Information and Systems

 The Four Stages of Data Processing

 Input: Data is collected and entered into computer.

 Data processing: Data is manipulated into

information using mathematical, statistical, and
other tools.

 Output: Information is displayed or presented.

 Feedback: Output that is used to make changes to
input or processing activities

Data, Information and Systems

 University

 Inputs: Students, Faculty, Textbooks

 Processes: Education/Courses
 Output: graduates
 Feedback: surveys, grades
Data, Information and Systems

Toyota Plant

 Inputs: raw materials, components

 Processes: assembly line
 Output: mini-vans
 Feedback: customer surveys, quality reports
Data, Information and Systems

 What is a system?

 A set of components that interact to accomplish goals

 What is an IS?
 A set of interrelated components that collect input,
process, and output data and information and
provide a feedback/control mechanism

 What is a MIS?
 An IS that uses IT. Components: hardware, software,
databases, networks, people, procedures
Historic Development AI
Artificial Intelligence
Knowledge / Expert System
Executive Support System
Decision Support System
Management Information System
Office Automation System
Transaction Processing System
Management Information System

 The three sub-components – MIS

 - together bring out the focus clearly & effectively.

 System emphasizing a fair degree of Integration and a

holistic view

 Information stressing on processed data in the context in

which it is used by the end user

 Management focusing on the ultimate use of such

information systems for managerial decision making

Management Information System
Management Information System
Operational Level

 Information System which monitors the
elementary activities and transaction of the
Transaction Processing System Eg.
 Operational Level System

 Sales & Marketing

 Order Tracking & Order Processing
 Manufacturing
 Plant Scheduling & Material Movement Control
 Finance
 Securities Trading & Cash Management
 Accounting
 Payroll, Accounts Payable, Accounts Receivable
 Human Resource
 Compensation Training & Development & employee record
Knowledge Level System

 Information System that support knowledge

and data workers in an organization
Knowledge Level System Eg.

 Engineering Workstation & Word Processing

 Graphic Workstation & Document Imaging

 Managerial Workstation & Electronic Calendars

Management Information System

Management Level System

 Information System which support the

monitoring controlling decision making and
administrative activities of middle

Management Information System
Sales & Marketing
 Sales Management & Sales Region Analysis

 Inventory Control & Production Scheduling


 Annual Budgeting & Cost Analysis


 Capital Investment Analysis & Profitability/Pricing

Strategic Level System

 Information System that supports the long

range planning activities of senior managers
Strategic Level System Eg.
Executive Support System

Sales & Marketing

 5 Year Sales trend forecast

 5 Year operational plan


 5 Year budgeting forecast


 Profit Planning