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Training Basics

(Source: CDC)
Materials were adapted with assistance from Dr. Virginia Gonzales, I-TECH from the following resource: Train-up with Teachback Caribbean Training
of Trainers Workshop Curriculum, Caribbean HIV/AIDS Regional Training Network (CHART), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and
International Training and Education Center on HIV (I-TECH), 2005.

Objective for This Session
Participants will gain knowledge in -
The basics of facilitating training
What Makes a Good Trainer?
Do you remember a good trainer?

In your opinion, what 1 or 2 personal
characteristics made this person an effective
trainer?
Important Training Concepts
1. Facilitate learning
2. Training is NOT just education
3. Telling is NOT training
4. Teaching more content does NOT mean
that more learning will occur

Training Basics
Know Your Audience
Use Adult Learning Principles
Be Prepared to Train
Manage the Training
Communicate Effectively
Engage the Participants
Know Your Audience
Why Know Your Audience?
Knowing your audience helps you -
Design your training to meet their needs
Choose the right participants for the
training
Omit unnecessary content
What You Need to Know About Your
Audience
Experience
Skills
Attitudes
Age, sex
Knowledge
Job/position
Education
New responsibilities
Training needs
Choosing and Assessing the Right
Participants (before the training)
Discuss participant selection with appropriate and
authoritative people (i.e., managers and supervisors)
Send course invitation letter
Include goals, objectives, participant criteria,
purpose and description of training, how the skills
and knowledge can be applied to the job
Send from person with organizational authority
Use a participant pre-assessment form
Talk to a few potential participants
Get to Know Course Participants
(during the training)
Use a get-to-know-you exercise
Ask participants to share their expectations of
the course
Talk with them before the training starts, during
breaks, etc.
Use Adult Learning
Principles
Training Adults
Adults learn differently from children and require
different training approaches.
Understanding adult learning principles helps you
use the right training techniques to enhance
learning.
Answers to Adult Learning Principles
Quiz
1. Adults bring a wealth of
knowledge & experience
which they want to share.
2. Adults are decision-makers
and self-directed learners.
Adult Learning Principle
C. Encourage participants to
share their knowledge and
experiences. Include
activities that utilize their
expertise.
Training Technique
B. Include problem-solving
activities.
Answers to Adult Learning Principles
Quiz (cont.)
4. Adults want to participate rather
than just listen to a lecture.
Adult Learning Principle
G. Create a participatory
learning environment with
various types of activities.
Training Technique
3. Adults have different learning
styles that must be respected.
A. Provide multiple ways for
participants to learn the material.
Answers to Adult Learning Principles
Quiz (cont.)
5. Adults are motivated by
information or tasks that
are meaningful and applicable to
their jobs.
Adult Learning Principle Training Technique
F. Relate the content and skills
to the participants jobs.
6. Adults prefer training that
focuses on real-life problems.
E. Relate content to problems
participants encounter in their
jobs.
Answers to Adult Learning Principles
Quiz (cont.)
7. Adults expect their time during
the training to be used carefully.
8. Adults feel anxious when
participating in a group
that makes them look
uninformed, either professionally
or personally.
Adult Learning Principle
D. Follow a realistic time
schedule.
Training Technique
J. Avoid criticism.
Acknowledge all
participants contributions.
Answers to Adult Learning Principles
Quiz (cont.)
9. Adults learn best in a positive
environment where they feel
respected and confident
10. Adults come from different
cultures, life styles, religious
preferences, genders, and ages.
Adult Learning Principle
H. Create a positive
environment by providing
positive feedback and
showing respect to all
participants
Training Technique
I. Respect all differences and
encourage participants to
respect each others
differences as well
3 Basic Learning Styles
Visual Auditory Tactile
Learn through
Watching
Observing
Reading

Learn through
Listening
Speaking

Learn through
Moving
Doing
Practicing
Touching
What Adults Remember
90
70
50
30
20
10
0 20 40 60 80 100
Read
Hear
See
Hear & See
Say
Say & Do
% of What Adults Remember
More
participation
equals
more
remembered
Key Point to Learning Styles
Learning methods
Interactive Lectures
Discussions
Exercises

Training materials
Slides
Manuals/handouts
Videos

Use a blend of training methods and
materials to reach the greatest number of
adult learners.
Use Repetition to Encourage
Remembering
Introduction: Tell them what you are going to
tell them
Presentation: Tell them again
Summary: Tell them what you just told them
For people to learn something, they sometimes have to
hear it 7 times.
Repeat, Repeat, Repeat
Less Content and More Repetition
Encourages Learning
Less Content
with
More Repetition
means
More Learning
will occur!
Be Prepared to Train
Know What You Are Training!
Even the best training skills cannot hide the fact
that a trainer does not know the content.
Review course material several weeks before
the training
Know the training goals and objectives
Know What You Are Training! (cont.)
Know the training content extremely well
Refer to the notes, slides, and other visuals during
the presentation do NOT read them
Know the training activities
Discussions
Exercises
Role plays
Demonstrations

Use Effective Organizational Skills
Organize training logically
Follow a plan (stick to an agenda)
Use checklists (before & during the training) for
things that must be done
Keep everyone informed
Prepare the Training Room
Check room before the training day (if possible)
Make sure the materials, supplies, and
equipment are available
Arrange training room to allow for the best
learning situation
Arrive at least an hour early on the training day
Prepare the Training Room (cont.)
Test all equipment before the training
Download files onto computers (if necessary)
Prepare ahead (i.e., prepare flipchart pages;
distribute manuals/handouts; arrange for
activities, exercises, and demonstrations)
Have a Back-up Plan
Be prepared for any and all problems by
having a back-up plan
Have extra supplies and materials
Use multiple formats (handouts, slides,
overhead transparencies)
Be flexible
Make positive situations out of negative ones
Practice Your Presentations
Practice out loud in front of a mirror or
with a colleague
Rehearse in the training room, if
possible
Time your presentation
Practice Your Presentations (cont.)
Practice with the equipment and materials
Use only 1 set of notes (either the handout, facilitator
guide, or printouts of the slides, but not all 3)
Practice holding the notes and a microphone while
advancing the slides
Practice with audiovisual equipment, props, and
supplies
Manage the Training
Manage the Training
As the facilitator, you are the manager of the
training course.
You are responsible for creating a training
that successfully meets the goals and
objectives.
Ways to Manage Training
Manage difficulties with -
The time
The participants
The locations
Unexpected situations
Case Study Keeping on Time
In 2 weeks you and Joe will conduct a training
course on TB/HIV surveillance. You have
conducted this training with Joe several times.
His presentations always come before yours.
Joe does not always keep on time. His
presentation takes 15 - 30 minutes longer
than the time allowed on the agenda.
Case Study Questions
1. How does this make you and the course
participants feel?
2. How does this impact the course?
3. What can be done before the training to
help Joe keep on time?
4. What can be done during the training to help
Joe keep on time?
Case Study Review
1. How does it make you and the course
participants feel?
It shows disrespect for-
The trainers who follow his presentation
The participants
It creates anxiety for other trainers
because of the change in the schedule
Case Study Review (cont.)
2. How does it impact the course?
The agenda may have to be revised
The hours of the training may need to be
extended
Other presentations may have to be
shortened or deleted
Case Study Review (cont.)
3. What can be done before the training to help
keep Joe on time?
On the agenda, show the time of day and the
amount of time for each presentation
Review the agenda with all facilitators
Set up a time-keeping structure and review with
facilitators (i.e., signs, bell)
Practice before the training
Case Study Review (cont.)
3. What can be done before the training to help
keep Joe on time?
Discuss how to keep on time
Keep training focused on the objectives
Let participants know what to expect
Give clear instructions
Emphasize only the need-to-know content
Know what content or activities can be shortened or deleted if
necessary
Use the Parking Lot
Refer to handouts/manual for more detailed information
Case Study Review (cont.)
4. What can be done during the training to help
keep Joe on time?
Use a clock that the trainer can see
Use the time-keeping system (signs, bell)

As a last resort if all else fails adjust the
schedule
Shorten breaks, lunch
Lengthen the day
Delete some presentations or activities
Difficult Participants
Dominates the conversation Interrupts others
Is a know-it-all Does not participate
Blah, blah,
bla, bla.
You dont
know.
Listen
here.
I am not saying
a word.
Ways to Manage Difficult Participants
Maintain control
Use verbal cues
Use body language
Refer to the Ground Rules
Use the Parking Lot
Give the person a specific task
Talk to the person outside the classroom
Never loose your cool or be rude
Manage Difficult Training Situations
Location of the training course
In the same city where participants live
Difficult or expensive to travel to
Training room
Temperature, electricity, lighting, room layout, outside noise
Equipment
Check out before the training
Materials
Plan ahead of time
Have a back-up plan!
Communicate
Effectively
Use Your Voice
This is the most important communication skill
Set the tone of the training
Convey most of the training content
Show enthusiasm
Encourage participation
Provide positive reinforcement
Manage the training

Use Your Voice (cont.)
Use your trainers voice
Project your voice so everyone can hear
you
Vary your pitch
Use comfortable and varied pace
Speak at the audiences technical level
Use a friendly tone
Use a microphone if necessary
Use Your Eyes
Communicate to participants through eye contact
Show enthusiasm
Encourage participation
Provide positive reinforcement
Manage the training
Use Your Eyes (cont.)
Observe participants
Are participants engaged?
Do participants understand?
What is the energy level?
Are there group dynamics?
Who is not participating?
Use Your Ears
Use listening skills
Wait for participants to finish what they are
saying
Use pauses to allow participants to respond
Listen to what participants are saying
Do they understand?
Are there concerns?
What are the needs of the participants?
Use silence to manage the training
Use Your Ears
Nature gave us
1 tongue and 2 ears
so we could hear twice as
much as we speak.
Use Body Language
Convey a friendly,
enthusiastic, facial expression
Provide positive reinforcement
Encourage participation
Manage the training
Use hands naturally
Move around the room
Can ease nervousness
Provides variety
Use Your Mind
Be adaptable and resourceful
Be creative
Anticipate problems
Make positive situations out of negatives
Use Your Heart
Show respect
Recognize that everyone has his or her own
style
Show support when mistakes are made
Show compassion


QUESTIONS?
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The End
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