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FLEXIBLE MANUFACTURING

SYSTEM(FMS)
o FMS Components
o FMS Workstations
o FMS Control
o Steps of FMS
o FMS Layout and configuration
o Computer Functions
o FMS Data files
o System reports
o Planning the FMS
o Benefits of FMS

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A flexible manufacturing system consist of group of processing
stations interconnected by means of an automated material handling
and storage system, and controlled by means of inter connected
computer system.
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INTRODUCTION TO FMS
APPLICATION CHARECTERISTICS OF FMS
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STAND-
ALONE NC
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FLEXIBLE
MANUFATURI
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TRANFER
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HIGH MEDIUM LOW
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PRODUCTION VOLUME
FMS COMPONENTS
Processing stations
CNC machine tools
Assembly work head
Sheet metal presses
Washing station
Material handling and storage
Load unload station
Robotics
Various other type of material handling equipments
Tool system
Tool setting station
Tool transport systems
Computer Control systems
Coordinate the activities of processing stations
Monitoring equipment
Networks


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FMS WORKSTATIONS
The processing or assembly equipment used in system depends on
the type of work that is accomplished in a system

Following is a list of the types of machines used in FMS workstations-:
Machining Centers:
It possesses features that make it very compatible with the FMS
approach to production , including automatic tool changing and
tool storage, CNC control etc.
Head Changers
For applications involving multiple tool cuts on the work part ,
head changers can be used as a processing station in an FMS. It
is a special capability to change the tool heads, just as a
machining tool changes single cutter.

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FMS WORKSTATIONS
Head Indexer
The head indexer is similar to the head changers except that the
tool head are larger, too large to permit them to be moved
between the spindle drive and tool storage location and its
application is limited to FMS installations involving the
processing of specific families of parts
Milling Modules-:
In some machining systems, the types of operations are
performed are concentrated in a certain category of machining
such as drilling, milling or turning, For milling, special milling
machine modules can be used to achieve high production levels
Turning Modules
For turning operations, special turning modules can be designed
for the FMS

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FMS CONTROL
FMS CONTRL
WORK STATION
CNC M/C TOOLS
ASSEMBLY EQIP
MEASURING EQIP
WASHING STATION
WORKPIECE
HANDELING
PALLETISING
ROBOTICS
AGV
AS/RS
TOOL
SUPPLY

TOOL SETTING
STN
TOOL TRANS SYS
WASTE
DISPOSAL
MONITRING EQUP
NETWORKS
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STEPS OF FMS
1. Gather and record data.
2. Develop process flow within the cell.
3. Identify equipment required and compare it to what is available.
4. Select assign equipment.
5. Build a relationship diagram and initial cell layout.
6. Recapture data in planned structure.
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FMS LAYOUT & CONFIGURATIONS
VARIOUS CATEGORIES
in-line
Loop
Ladder
Open field
Robot centered cell

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IN-LINE FMS LAYOUT
Part progress from one system to another without any back flow
Depending on the flexibility and storage features of the handling
system it us possible to accommodate back flow
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Basic in-line configuration with one directional work flow.
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In-line with transfer at workstation to allow back flow on
primary handling system
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LOOP FMS LAYOUT
Part usually flow in loop with capability to stop at any station
Load unload is typically located at one end of the loop
Secondary work handing is shown at each work station to permit
parts to move parts without obstruction around the loop
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Loop FMS layout with transfer at workstations to allow
unobstructed flow on primary handling system
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LADDER FMS LAYOUT
It contains rungs on which workstations are located
Reduces avg. travel time by reducing distance between workstation
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Ladder FMS layout
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OPEN FIELD LAYOUT
Adaptation to loop configuration
Consist of loops ,ladders, siding, organized to achieve the desired
processing requirements
Appropriate for processing large family of parts
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ROBOT CENTERED CELL
Relatively new born
Robots are used in material handling systems
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COMPUTER FUNCTIONS
Control each workstation
Operate under some form of computer control
CNC is used to control individual m/c tool
Distribution of instructions control to workstations
Centralized control
Production control
These decisions are based on data entered into the computer
Traffic control
Tow line chains and conveyor speeds are individually controlled
by computer
Shuttle control
Tool control

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FMS DATA FILES
To exercise control over the FMS, the computer relies on data
contained in computer storage files.
The principle data files for a FMS system are
Part Program File :
The part program for each of the work part processed on the
system is maintained in this file. For any given workpart, a
separate program in required for each station that performs
operation on the part.
Routing File :
This file contains the list of workstations through which each
workpart must be processed. It also contains alternate routings
for the parts. So if machine with primary routings is on repair
an alternate part shall be selected by computer to follow
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FMS DATA FILES
Part production file
A file of Production parameters is maintained for each
workpart. These data are used for production control purposes.
i.e. Production rates, Inspection required, Process in flow
inventory
Pallet reference file
A given Pallet is fixture only for certain parts .A pallet
reference file is used to maintain a record of parts that each
pallet can accept.
Station tool file
A file kept at each workstations for identifying the codes of
the cutting tolls stored at that stations. This file is used for
tool control purposes.


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FMS DATA FILES
Tool-life file:
This data file keeps the tool- life value of each cutting tool in
the system. The cumulative machining time of each tool is
compared with its life value so that replacement can be made
before complete failure occurs.


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SYSTEM REPORTS
This are performance data reports collected during monitoring of FMS
Utilization Reports
These are the reports that summarize the utilization of individual
of individual workstation as well as overall average utilization
for the FMS.
Production Reports
These are the reports that summarize daily and weekly quantities
of parts produced from the FMS.
Status reports
Line supervision can call for a report on the current status of the
system at any time. It can be considered as an instantaneous
snapshot of present condition of the FMS. i.e. status reports on
work parts, Machine utilization , pallets and other system
operating parameters

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SYSTEM REPORTS
Tool Reports
These reports relate to various aspects of the tool control. It tells
if the tools have been overused and are need to be replaced.
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PLANNING THE FMS
Since FMS represents a major investment it is important that the
installation of the system is done by thorough procedure of planning
and design. The factors applicable in planning a fully automated
FMS are

Volume of work flow
The amount of production planned for the FMS determines how
many machines will be required in the system and the type of
material handling equipments that could be used
Variations in process routings
Variation in process sequence is minimal, an in-line flow is most
appropriate. If the product variety increases, the loop and field
layout is appropriate. A ladder layer is appropriate when
variation is significant.

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PLANNING THE FMS
Physical characteristics of the workparts
The size and weight if the parts determine the size of machines used
at the workstations and the type of material handling system used.
Part families defined according to product commonality
Besides part design similarity, Product commonality should also
influence the selection of which parts are to be made on system.
Product commonality means different components used on same
product


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PLANNING THE FMS
FMS manpower requirements
Proposed by Klahrost.
One part loader / unloader for each five machines
One tool setup person for every 10 machines to exchange tools in
the tool storage magazines. Assumed that the FMS does not have
automated tool hanging system.
One utility worker for each 10 machines.
One system manager per FMS.
In addition part programmer and computer operators are needed.
The staff must be appropriate for their position and must be
given proper training.
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PLANNING THE FMS
Appropriate production volumes
5,000 to 75,000 parts per year then the FMS is likely to be
expensive alternative. If production volume is above this range
then, then more specialized production system (i.e. transfer lines)
should be probably be considered.
Minimum no of machines per FMS
FOUR, to justify the expense four machines in the FMS is
considered to be minimum. Below that level, a GT cell or stand-
alone CNC machining center should be considered.
Minimum normal tolerance on work in a FMS
0.002
Due to the additional positioning errors use of pallet fixtures and
material handling system FMS system cannot achieve close
tolerances.


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BENEFITS OF FMS
Higher m/c utilization
Utilization is 80% compared to conventional 50%
Reduced work in progress
Number of parts are processed together rather separately in
batches
Lower manufacturing lead time
Time spent by part in process is less
Greater flexibility in production scheduling
Capability to make adjustment in production schedule& can
respond to rush orders
Higher labors productivity

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THANK YOU
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