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Strain Mekanik Bahan

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You are on page 1of 27

2. Strain

1

CHAPTER OBJECTIVES

• Define concept of

normal strain

• Define concept of

shear strain

• Determine normal

and shear strain in

engineering

applications

2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

2. Strain

2

CHAPTER OUTLINE

1. Deformation

2. Strain

2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

2. Strain

3

Deformation

• Occurs when a force is applied to a body

• Can be highly visible or practically unnoticeable

• Can also occur when temperature of a body is

changed

• Is not uniform throughout a body’s volume, thus

change in geometry of any line segment within

body may vary along its length

2.1 DEFORMATION

2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

2. Strain

4

To simplify study of deformation

• Assume lines to be very short and located in

neighborhood of a point, and

• Take into account the orientation of the line

segment at the point

2.1 DEFORMATION

2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

2. Strain

5

Normal strain

• Defined as the elongation or contraction of a line

segment per unit of length

• Consider line AB in figure below

• After deformation, Δs changes to Δs’

2.2 STRAIN

2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

2. Strain

6

Normal strain

• Defining average normal strain using

avg

(epsilon)

• As Δs → 0, Δs’ → 0

2.2 STRAIN

avg

=

Δs − Δs’

Δs

=

Δs − Δs’

Δs

lim

B→A along n

2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

2. Strain

7

Normal strain

• If normal strain is known, use the equation to

obtain approx. final length of a short line segment

in direction of n after deformation.

• Hence, when is positive, initial line will elongate,

if is negative, the line contracts

2.2 STRAIN

Δs’ ≈ (1 + ) Δs

2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

2. Strain

8

2.2 STRAIN

Units

• Normal strain is a dimensionless quantity, as

it’s a ratio of two lengths

• But common practice to state it in terms of

meters/meter (m/m)

• is small for most engineering applications, so

is normally expressed as micrometers per

meter (μm/m) where 1 μm = 10

−6

• Also expressed as a percentage,

e.g., 0.001 m/m = 0.1 %

2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

2. Strain

9

2.2 STRAIN

Shear strain

• Defined as the change in angle that occurs

between two line segments that were originally

perpendicular to one another

• This angle is denoted by γ (gamma) and

measured in radians (rad).

2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

2. Strain

10

2.2 STRAIN

Shear strain

• Consider line segments AB and AC originating

from same point A in a body, and directed along

the perpendicular n and t axes

• After deformation, lines become curves, such that

angle between them at A is θ’

2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

2. Strain

11

2.2 STRAIN

Shear strain

• Hence, shear strain at point A associated with n

and t axes is

• If θ’ is smaller than /2, shear strain is positive,

otherwise, shear strain is negative

γ

nt

=

2

lim

B→A along n

C →A along t

θ’

−

2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

2. Strain

12

Cartesian strain components

• Using above definitions of normal and shear strain,

we show how they describe the deformation of the

body

2.2 STRAIN

• Divide body into small

elements with

undeformed dimensions

of Δx, Δy and Δz

2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

2. Strain

13

Cartesian strain components

• Since element is very small, deformed shape of

element is a parallelepiped

• Approx. lengths of sides of parallelepiped are

(1 +

x

) Δx (1 +

y

)Δy (1 +

z

)Δz

2.2 STRAIN

2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

2. Strain

14

Cartesian strain components

• Approx. angles between the sides are

2.2 STRAIN

2

− γ

xy

2

− γ

yz

2

− γ

xz

• Normal strains cause a change in its volume

• Shear strains cause a change in its shape

• To summarize, state of strain at a point requires

specifying 3 normal strains;

x

,

y

,

z

and 3 shear

strains of γ

xy

, γ

yz

, γ

xz

2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

2. Strain

15

Small strain analysis

• Most engineering design involves applications

for which only small deformations are allowed

• We’ll assume that deformations that take place

within a body are almost infinitesimal, so normal

strains occurring within material are very small

compared to 1, i.e., << 1.

2.2 STRAIN

2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

2. Strain

16

Small strain analysis

• This assumption is widely applied in practical

engineering problems, and is referred to as

small strain analysis

• E.g., it can be used to approximate sin θ = θ, cos

θ = θ and tan θ = θ, provided θ is small

2.2 STRAIN

2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

2. Strain

17

EXAMPLE 2.1

Rod below is subjected to temperature increase

along its axis, creating a normal strain of

z

= 40(10

−3

)z

1/2,

where z is given in meters.

Determine

(a) displacement of end B of rod

due to temperature increase,

(b) average normal strain in the

rod.

2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

2. Strain

18

EXAMPLE 2.1 (SOLN)

(a) Since normal strain reported at each point along

the rod, a differential segment dz, located at

position z has a deformed length:

dz’ = [1 + 40(10

−3

)z

1/2

] dz

2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

2. Strain

19

EXAMPLE 2.1 (SOLN)

(a) Sum total of these segments along axis yields

deformed length of the rod, i.e.,

z’ = ∫

0

[1 + 40(10

−3

)z

1/2

] dz

= z + 40(10

−3

)(⅔ z

3/2

)|

0

= 0.20239 m

0.2 m

0.2 m

Displacement of end of rod is

Δ

B

= 0.20239 m − 0.2 m = 2.39 mm ↓

2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

2. Strain

20

EXAMPLE 2.1 (SOLN)

(b) Assume rod or “line segment” has original

length of 200 mm and a change in length of

2.39 mm. Hence,

avg

=

Δs’ − Δs

Δs

=

2.39 mm

200 mm

= 0.0119 mm/mm

2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

2. Strain

21

EXAMPLE 2.3

Plate is deformed as shown in figure. In this

deformed shape, horizontal lines on the on plate

remain horizontal and do not change their length.

Determine

(a) average normal strain

along side AB,

(b) average shear strain

in the plate relative to

x and y axes

2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

2. Strain

22

EXAMPLE 2.3 (SOLN)

(a) Line AB, coincident with y axis, becomes line

AB’ after deformation. Length of line AB’ is

AB’ = √ (250 − 2)

2

+ (3)

2

= 248.018 mm

2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

2. Strain

23

EXAMPLE 2.3 (SOLN)

(a) Therefore, average normal strain for AB is,

= −7.93(10

−3

) mm/mm

(

AB

)

avg

=

AB

AB’ − AB 248.018 mm − 250 mm

250 mm

=

Negative sign means

strain causes a

contraction of AB.

2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

2. Strain

24

EXAMPLE 2.3 (SOLN)

(b) Due to displacement of B to B’, angle BAC

referenced from x, y axes changes to θ’.

Since γ

xy

= /2 − θ’, thus

γ

xy

= tan

−1

3 mm

250 mm − 2 mm

= 0.0121 rad

( )

2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

2. Strain

25

CHAPTER REVIEW

• Loads cause bodies to deform, thus points in

the body will undergo displacements or

changes in position

• Normal strain is a measure of elongation or

contraction of small line segment in the body

• Shear strain is a measure of the change in

angle that occurs between two small line

segments that are originally perpendicular to

each other

2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

2. Strain

26

CHAPTER REVIEW

• State of strain at a point is described by six

strain components:

a) Three normal strains:

x

,

y

,

z

b) Three shear strains: γ

xy

, γ

xz

, γ

yz

c) These components depend upon the orientation of

the line segments and their location in the body

• Strain is a geometrical quantity measured

by experimental techniques. Stress in body

is then determined from material property

relations

2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

2. Strain

27

CHAPTER REVIEW

• Most engineering materials undergo small

deformations, so normal strain << 1.

This assumption of “small strain analysis”

allows us to simplify calculations for

normal strain, since first-order

approximations can be made about their

size

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