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Notices…

Our last workshop…
Thursday 27 October
Time: 4.30???
Where: CLV
Bring:
• Food to share,
• Games to play,
• Songs to sing…
• CAMERAS!!!!!!
EndNote…

http://www.library.qut.edu.au/services/endnote/


A little review…
Paraphrasing …
How?
1. Highlight the key words/phrases in the quote
that express the overall meaning – which
words are key... ?
2. Change the order of ideas – e.g. put what was
at the end, at the beginning
3. Change the vocabulary – use synonyms &
different phrases (Thesaurus = PC:
Shift + F7; MAC: Control + Option + Command
+ R)





A little review…
Paraphrasing …
How?
1. Highlight the key words/phrases in the quote
that express the overall meaning – which
words are key... ?
2. Change the order of ideas – e.g. put what was
at the end, at the beginning
3. Change the vocabulary – use synonyms &
different phrases (Thesaurus = PC:
Shift + F7; MAC: Control + Option + Command
+ R)



Synthesizing…
How?
1. Highlight the key words/phrases in
the quotes
2. Change the vocabulary – use
synonyms & different phrases
(Thesaurus = PC: Shift + F7; MAC:
Control + Option + Command + R)
3. Start linking your paraphrased
words/phrases together to form a
new statement


Paraphrase this statement…
“…language policies are always linked with
broader social, economic, and political agendas
that usually have priority over pedagogical and
educational concerns. For example, decisions
about which language variety or varieties to use as
a medium of instruction are usually determined not
by the educational needs of students and teachers,
but rather by political agendas that are often
unexpressed and largely implicit” (Tollefson and
Tsui, 2007, p.262)

Paraphrase this statement…
“…language policies education policy are always
linked with broader social, economic, and political
agendas that usually have priority precedence over
pedagogical and educational academic concerns
interests. For example, decisions about which
language variety or varieties to use as a medium of
instruction are usually determined not by the
educational needs requirements of students
learners and teachers, but rather by political
agendas that are often unexpressed and largely
implicit hidden” (Tollefson and Tsui, 2007, p.262)

Is this a good paraphrase?
As Tollefson and Tsui (2007) outline, language policies
are often determined by political agendas rather than
the educational needs and concerns of students and
teachers
As Tollefson and Tsui (2007) outline, language policies
are often determined by political agendas rather than
the educational needs and concerns of students and
teachers
Something a little better…
As Tollefson and Tsui (2007) outline, language-in-
education policies are often determined by political
agendas rather than the academic requirements and
interests of teachers and learners.


Definitions of code-switching:
“code-switching is quite a normal and widespread form
of bilingual interaction” (Muysken, 2007, p.177)
“a form of language practice in which individuals draw
on their linguistic resources to accomplish
conversational purposes… these resources constitute
the basis of strategies… for playing the game of social
life” (Heller, 2007, p.166)
“the alternation of two languages within a single
discourse, sentence or constituent” (Poplack, 2007,
p.214)
“the use of two or more languages in the same
discourse” (Myers-Scotton & Jake, 2007, p.245)

Definitions of code-switching:
“code-switching is quite a normal common and widespread form of bilingual
speakers interaction communication/practice” (Muysken, 2007, p.177)
“a form of language practice in which individuals draw on their linguistic resources
to accomplish achieve conversational discourse purposes … these resources
constitute the basis of strategies… for playing the game of social life” (Heller,
2007, p.166)
“the alternation alternate of two more than one languages within a single
discourse, sentence or constituent” (Poplack, 2007, p.582)
“the use of two or more languages in the same a discourse” (Myers-Scotton &
Jake, 1995, p.981)
My Idea…
Code-switching is a common practice amongst bilingual speakers,
where more than one language is alternated to achieve particular
purposes in a discourse (Heller, 2007 Muysken, 1995; Myers-
Scotton & Jake, 1995; Poplack, 1980)

Key words = yellow
Synonym (my idea) = red
Some ideas to help you…

Lit review extract… Helpful comments…
Further to this, Norton (1997, p.410) posits
identity as relating to desire, “the desire for
recognition, the desire for affiliation, and the
desire for security and safety”
I found another significant definition, different
from the others that I had found, that lead me
into talking about the research studies…
make sure in your own lit review that you
keep everything very cohesive 
Indeed, these particular „desires‟ are evident
in the results of research concerning “non-
native” L2 teachers, where their professional
identities were found to be compromised.
A „topic‟ sentence, introducing the research
and making a link back to the definitions I
have just presented
Feelings of inadequacy in language
proficiency, having to embrace „foreign‟
pedagogical practices (e.g. CLT), along with
notions of feeling inferior to “native” L2
teacher colleagues, appeared to result in an
increase of anxiety and lack of confidence in
the “non-native” L2 teachers (Pavlenko,
2003; Richards, 2008; Tsui, 2007)
I have summarized and synthesized the
results of 3 significant studies together... This
is a good way of saving space, yet
communicating essential information 

Lit review extract… Helpful comments…
However, despite the plethora of published research
on code-switching, few studies have explored
teacher code-switching in the primary EFL context
specifically, and even fewer have explored code-
switching in the South Pacific region
At this point after summarizing and synthesizing the
results of a number of studies, I'm really narrowing
things down to my specific research focus and
identifying a gap in the research…
The most notable study was conducted by Willans
(2011) who explored code-switching between
Bislama and English in a Vanuatu secondary school
and found that not only was code-switching between
Bislama and English prevalent in the classroom
despite education policy banning the use of
Bislama, but that Bislama was facilitative to
learning. She thus argues that the current Vanuatu
education policy is “detrimental to students‟
academic progress” (Willans, 2011, p.24), and calls
for language-in-education policy that facilitates
learning while preparing learners for meeting
necessary linguistic demands in today‟s globalized
world
My summary of one of the studies… Note that I
have only pulled out the most salient points that
relate directly to my own research focus
However, Willans‟ (2011) study does not address
ELL specifically, is limited to a secondary school
context examining only 3 students in a geography
class and did not address the teacher‟s use of code-
switching.
Note how I have highlighted the gap in the research
immediately after I summarised it…

Lit review extract… Helpful comments…
Similarly, Tamata (1996) examined the reasons for code-
switching in two Fijian schools, and calls for the acceptance
of code-switching within „English only‟ policy contexts as a
“viable instructional and learning strategy” (p.100).
Note how I use a conjunction to make a cohesive link to the
next study, and again summarize it, by only bringing out the
most salient points that relate to my own research focus…
However this study was limited to a secondary school context
and lacked analysis of recorded classroom data.
Again, I identify the gap…
Likewise, Seigel (1997), in exploring the impact Tok Pisin
(Melanesisan Pidgin English from Papua New Guinea) as a
medium of instruction had on learners who progressed onto
an 'English only' primary school, concluded that using a L1
pidgin or creole that has the same lexifier as the L2 in early
education, facilitated later learning in an English speaking
primary school.
Again, another conjunction to create cohesion, and a
summary of the findings…
However, Siegel‟s (1997) study did not take into consideration
teacher perspectives or the complexities of having the L1
pidgin as a medium of instruction in an L2 class, but
examined separate schools, where the two languages were
not used simultaneously.
Again, I am highlighting the gap here…


Thus, in regard to primary teachers‟ code-switching between
English and South Pacific pidgins/creoles, it appears from the
dearth of available research, that this phenomenon has been
relatively un-researched
A summary of these findings… Notice here that I have only
looked at 3 studies in detail – they are the ones that are the
most connected with my own research.

Also notice how convincingly I have highlighted the ever
widening gap with each study – think about how you can do
that with your own studies… 

References…
Heller, M. (2007). Code-switching and the politics of language. In L. Wei (Ed.), The Bilingualism Reader (pp. 163-176).
London: Rouledge.
Muysken, P. (2007). Code-switching and grammatical theory. In L. Wei (Ed.), The Bilingualism Reader (pp. 280-297).
London: Routledge.
Myers-Scotton, C., & Jake, J. (2007). Matching lemmas in a bilingual competence and production model. In L.
Wei (Ed.), The Bilingualism Reader (pp. 244-279). London Routledge.
Norton, B. (1997). Language, identity and the ownership of English. TESOL Quarterly, 31(3), 409-429.
Pavlenko, A. (2003). "I never knew I was bilingual": Reimagining teacher identities in TESOL. Journal of Language,
Identity and Education, 2(4), 251-268.
Poplack, S. (2007). Sometimes I'll start a sentence in Spanish y termin en espanol: Toward a typology of code-
switching. In L. Wei (Ed.), The Bilingualism Reader (pp. 213-243). London: Rouledge.
Richards, J. (2008). Second language teacher education today. RELC Journal, 39(2), 158-177.
Siegel, J. (1997). Using pidgin language in formal education: Help or hindrance? Applied Linguistics, 18(1), 86-100.
Tamata, A. (1996). Code-switching in Fiji's schools. In F. Mugler & J. Lynch (Eds.), Pacific Languages in Education
(pp. 92-101). Suva: Institute of Pacific Studies.
Tollefson, J., & Tsui, A. (2007). Issues in language policy, culture and identity. In A. Tsui & J. Tollefson (Eds.), Langauge
policy, culture and identity in Asian contexts (pp. 259-270). Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Inc.
Tsui, A. (2007). Complexities of identity formation: A narrative inquiry of an EFL teacher. TESOL Quarterly, 41(4),
657-680.
Willans, F. (2011). Classroom code-switching in a Vanuatu secondary school: Conflict between policy and practice.
International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 14(1), 23-38.