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MULTIPLE COMPARISON

OF TREATMENT MEANS
Comparing means of
different treatments i.e.
which two treatments are
different significantly?
Comparison of means is
necessary only when there is
significant difference among
treatment means as indicated
by ANOVA
H
o
: u
1
= u
2
= u
3
= ……= u
t
When H
o
is rejected, we conclude that
the means differ significantly (at least 2
means differ significantly), but does not
specify which pairs of treatment means
differ. LSD, DNMRT and HSD can be
applied.
LSD (Least significant
difference) Test
 Designed by Fisher
 It’s a t-test.
 More suitable for
comparing paired means.
d
s
Y Y
t
2 1


Therefore:
If the observed difference between the two means exceeds LSD the
difference is declared as significant, thus:
d
s t LSD . 
r
MSE
s
d
2

Where:
d
s t Y Y .
2 1
 
Arrange data according to treatments and replications:
Treatment RI RII RIII RIV Total Mean
V1 47 52 62 51 212 53
V2 50 54 67 57 228 57
V3 57 53 69 57 236 59
V4 54 65 74 59 252 63
Total 208 224 272 224 928
Mean 52 56 68 56
ANOVA Table
Source
Variation
df SS MS F F
table
(α=0.05)
Total 15 854
Rep. 3 576 192 24.7* 3.86
Treatment 3 208 69.3 8.9* 3.86
Error 9 70 7.78
Calculation :








Obtain value of t from table at df = dfe = 9 and
α=0.05, t = 2.262




therefore  LSD = 2.262 x 1.972
= 4.46 t/ha
d
s t LSD . 
r MSE s
d
/ 2 
  972 . 1 4 / 78 . 7 2  
d
s

Compare difference between treatment means with LSD:
Larger  significant
Smaller  not significant
Variety Var1 Var2 Var3 Var4
Mean 53 57 59 63
V1 vs V4 = 53 – 63 = 10 > 4.46  significant difference
V1 vs V3 = 53 – 59 = 6 > 4.46  significant difference
V1 vs V2 = 53 – 57 = 4 < 4.46  no significant difference
V2 vs V4 = 57 – 63 = 6 > 4.46  significant difference
V2 vs V3 = 57 – 59 = 2 < 4.46  no significant difference
V3 vs V4 = 59 – 63 = 4 < 4.46  no significant difference
A CRD experiment on nitrogen content of red clover plants
innoculated with combination cultures of Rhizobium trifolii
strains and Rhizobium meliloti strains with 6 treatments
and 5 replications results the following:
a b c d e f
19.4 17.7 17.0 20.7 14.3 17.3
32.6 24.8 19.4 21.0 14.4 19.4
27.0 27.9 9.1 20.5 11.8 19.1
32.1 25.2 11.9 18.8 11.6 16.9
33.0 24.3 15.8 18.6 14.2 20.8
Exercise:
Test the different combinations using LSD.
a b c d e f

Y
.j
R1 19.4 17.7 17.0 20.7 14.3 17.3 106.4
R2 32.6 24.8 19.4 21.0 14.4 19.4 131.6
R3 27.0 27.9 9.1 20.5 11.8 19.1 115.4
R4 32.1 25.2 11.9 18.8 11.6 16.9 116.5
R5 33.0 24.3 15.8 18.6 14.2 20.8 126.7
Y
i.

144.1 119.9 73.2 99.6 66.3 93.5 596.6
Y 28.8 24.0 14.6 19.9 13.3 18.7
Calculation:
Source
Variation
df SS MS F F
table
(α=0.05/0.01)
Total 29 1129.98
Treatments 5 847.05 169.41 14.37** 2.62/
3.90
Error 24 282.93 11.79
Calculation :
CF =
11864.39







Obtain value of t from table at df = dfe = 24,
α=0.05, t = 2.064





therefore  LSD = 2.064 x 2.172
= 4.483 mg N
d
s t LSD . 
r MSE s
d
/ 2 
  172 . 2 5 / 79 . 11 2  
d
s
Compare difference between treatment
means with LSD= 4.483 mg N :
a vs e = 28.8 – 13.3 = 15.5 > 4.483  significant difference
a vs c = 28.8 – 14.6 = 14.2 > 4.483  significant difference
a vs f = 28.8 – 18.7 = 10.1 > 4.483  significant difference
a vs d = 28.8 – 19.9 = 8.9 > 4.483  significant difference
a vs b = 28.8 – 24.0 = 4.8 > 4.483  significant difference
b vs e = 24.0 – 13.3 = 10.7 > 4.483  significant difference
b vs c = 24.0 – 14.6 = 9.4 > 4.483  significant difference
b vs f = 24.0 – 18.7 = 5.3 > 4.483  significant difference
b vs d = 24.0 – 19.9 = 4.1 < 4.483  insignificant difference
Contd .......
cultures
e c f d b a
mean 13.3 14.6 18.7 19.9 24.0 28.8
d vs e = 19.9 – 13.3 = 6.6 > 4.483  significant difference
d vs c = 19.9 – 14.6 = 5.3 > 4.483  significant difference
d vs f = 19.9 – 18.7 = 1.2 < 4.483  insignificant difference
f vs e = 18.7 – 13.3 = 5.3 > 4.483  significant difference
f vs c = 18.7 – 14.6 = 2.1 < 4.483  insignificant difference
c vs e = 14.6 – 13.3 = 1.3 < 4.483  significant difference
HSD (Honestly Significant
Difference) - Tukey
 Tukey (1949) proposed a multiple
comparison procedure where all pairs
of treatment means can be compared
 Like LSD, a single value is used for
judging significant difference, called
HSD
 HSD is higher than LSD, thus more
conservative.




 Obtain Q from table refering to df = dfe = 24,
k = 6, α=0.05, where k = number of treatments i.e
Q = 4.37.
 Thus 

r MSE Q HSD / 
mgN HSD 73 . 6 54 . 1 37 . 4 5 / 79 . 11 37 . 4    
Compare difference between treatment
means with HSD = 6.75 mg N :
a vs e = 28.8 – 13.3 = 15.5 > 6.73  significant difference
a vs c = 28.8 – 14.6 = 14.2 > 6.73  significant difference
a vs f = 28.8 – 18.7 = 10.1 > 6.73  significant difference
a vs d = 28.8 – 19.9 = 8.9 > 6.73  significant difference
a vs b = 28.8 – 24.0 = 4.8 < 6.73  insignificant difference
b vs e = 24.0 – 13.3 = 10.7 > 6.73  significant difference
b vs c = 24.0 – 14.6 = 9.4 > 6.73  significant difference
b vs f = 24.0 – 18.7 = 5.3 < 6.73  insignificant difference
b vs d = 24.0 – 19.9 = 4.1 < 6.73  insignificant difference
Contd .......
cultures
e c f d b a
mean 13.3 14.6 18.7 19.9 24.0 28.8
d vs e = 19.9 – 13.3 = 6.6 < 6.73  insignificant difference
d vs c = 19.9 – 14.6 = 5.3 < 6.73  insignificant difference
d vs f = 19.9 – 18.7 = 1.2 < 6.73  insignificant difference
f vs e = 18.7 – 13.3 = 5.3 < 6.73  insignificant difference
f vs c = 18.7 – 14.6 = 2.1 < 6.73  insignificant difference
c vs e = 14.6 – 13.3 = 1.3 < 6.73  insignificant difference
Treatments Mean
a 28.8a
b 24.0ab
C 14.6c
d 19.9bc
e 13.3c
f 18.7bc
HSD = 6.73 mg N
Treatments Mean
a 28.8a
b 24.0b
c 14.6c
d 19.9bd
e 13.3c
f 18.7cd
LSD = 4.48 mg N