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STAT 497

LECTURE NOTES 4
MODEL INDETIFICATION AND NON-
STATIONARY TIME SERIES MODELS
1
MODEL IDENTIFICATION
• We have learned a large class of linear
parametric models for stationary time series
processes.
• Now, the question is how we can find out the
best suitable model for a given observed
series. How to choose the appropriate model
(on order of p and q).

2
MODEL IDENTIFICATION
• ACF and PACF show specific properties for
specific models. Hence, we can use them as a
criteria to identify the suitable model.
• Using the patterns of sample ACF and sample
PACF, we can identify the model.
3
MODEL SELECTION THROUGH CRITERIA
• Besides sACF and sPACF plots, we have also other
tools for model identification.
• With messy real data, sACF and sPACF plots
become complicated and harder to interpret.
• Don’t forget to choose the best model with as
few parameters as possible.
• It will be seen that many different models can fit
to the same data so that we should choose the
most appropriate (with less parameters) one and
the information criteria will help us to decide this.
4
MODEL SELECTION THROUGH CRITERIA
• The three well-known information criteria are
– Akaike’s information criterion (AIC) (Akaike, 1974)
– Schwarz’s Bayesian Criterion (SBC) (Schwarz, 1978).
Also known as Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC)
– Hannan-Quinn Criteria (HQIC) (Hannan&Quinn,
1979)
5
AIC
• Assume that a statistical model of M parameters
is fitted to data

• For the ARMA model and n observations, the
log-likelihood function
| | . 2 likelihood maximum ln 2 M AIC + ÷ =
( )
  
sidual SS
q p
a
a
S
n
L
Re
2
2
, ,
2
1
2 ln
2
ln µ u |
o
to ÷ ÷ =
( ) . , 0 ~ assuming
2
. .
|
.
|

\
|
a
d i i
t
N a o
6
AIC
• Then, the maximized log-likelihood is
( )
  
constant
2
2 ln 1
2
ˆ ln
2
nˆ l t o + ÷ ÷ =
n n
L
a
M n AIC
a
2 ˆ ln
2
+ = o
Choose model (or the value of M) with
minimum AIC.
7
SBC
• The Bayesian information criterion (BIC) or
Schwarz Criterion (also SBC, SBIC) is a criterion
for model selection among a class of
parametric models with different numbers of
parameters.
• When estimating model parameters using
maximum likelihood estimation, it is possible to
increase the likelihood by adding additional
parameters, which may result in overfitting.
The BIC resolves this problem by introducing a
penalty term for the number of parameters in
the model.

8
SBC
• In SBC, the penalty for additional parameters
is stronger than that of the AIC.


• It has the most superior large sample
properties.
• It is consistent, unbiased and sufficient.

n M n SBC
a
ln ˆ ln
2
+ = o
9
HQIC
• The Hannan-Quinn information criterion
(HQIC) is an alternative to AIC and SBC.


• It can be shown [see Hannan (1980)] that in
the case of common roots in the AR and MA
polynomials, the Hannan-Quinn and Schwarz
criteria still select the correct orders p and q
consistently.
( ) n M n HQIC
a
ln ln 2 ˆ ln
2
+ = o
10
THE INVERSE AUTOCORRELATION
FUNCTION
• The sample inverse autocorrelation function
(SIACF) plays much the same role in ARIMA
modeling as the sample partial
autocorrelation function (SPACF), but it
generally indicates subset and seasonal
autoregressive models better than the SPACF.
11
THE INVERSE AUTOCORRELATION
FUNCTION
• Additionally, the SIACF can be useful for detecting
over-differencing. If the data come from a
nonstationary or nearly nonstationary model, the
SIACF has the characteristics of a noninvertible
moving-average. Likewise, if the data come from
a model with a noninvertible moving average,
then the SIACF has nonstationary characteristics
and therefore decays slowly. In particular, if the
data have been over-differenced, the SIACF looks
like a SACF from a nonstationary process
12
THE INVERSE AUTOCORRELATION
FUNCTION
• Let Y
t
be generated by the ARMA(p, q) process

• If u(B) is invertible, then the model

is also a valid ARMA(q, p) model. This model
is sometimes referred to as the dual model.
The autocorrelation function (ACF) of this dual
model is called the inverse autocorrelation
function (IACF) of the original model.

( ) ( ) ( ). , 0 ~ where
2
a t t q t p
WN a a B Y B o u | =
( ) ( )
t p t q
a B Z B | u =
13
THE INVERSE AUTOCORRELATION
FUNCTION
• Notice that if the original model is a pure
autoregressive model, then the IACF is an ACF that
corresponds to a pure moving-average model. Thus, it
cuts off sharply when the lag is greater than p; this
behavior is similar to the behavior of the partial
autocorrelation function (PACF).
• Under certain conditions, the sampling distribution of
the SIACF can be approximated by the sampling
distribution of the SACF of the dual model (Bhansali
1980). In the plots generated by ARIMA, the
confidence limit marks (.) are located at ±2n
÷1/2
. These
limits bound an approximate 95% confidence interval
for the hypothesis that the data are from a white noise
process.
14
THE EXTENDED SAMPLE
AUTOCORRELATION FUNCTION_ESACF
• The extended sample autocorrelation function
(ESACF) method can tentatively identify the
orders of a stationary or nonstationary ARMA
process based on iterated least squares
estimates of the autoregressive parameters.
Tsay and Tiao (1984) proposed the technique.
15
ESACF
• Consider ARMA(p, q) model

or

then

follows an MA(q) model
16
( ) ( )
t
q
q t
p
p
a B B Y B B u u u | | ÷ ÷ ÷ + = ÷ ÷ ÷  
1 0 1
1 1
q t q t t p t p t t
a a a Y Y Y
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
÷ ÷ ÷ + + + + = u u | | u  
1 1 1 1 0
( )
t
p
p t
Y B B Z | | + + ÷ = 
1
1
.
1 1 0 q t q t t t
a a a Z
÷ ÷
÷ ÷ ÷ + = u u u 
ESACF
• Given a stationary or nonstationary time series
Y
t
with mean corrected form with a
true autoregressive order of p+d and with a
true moving-average order of q, we can use the
ESACF method to estimate the unknown orders
and by analyzing the sample autocorrelation
functions associated with filtered series of the
form
17
µ ÷ =
t t
Y Y
( )
( )
( )
( )
¿
÷ = =
=
÷
m
i
j t
j m
i t t j m
j m
t
Y Y Y B Z
1
,
,
,
ˆ ˆ
| |
( ) process. j m, ARMA an is series that the
assumption under the estimates parameter the are s '
ˆ
where
i
|
ESACF
• It is known that OLS estimators for ARMA
process are not consistent so that an iterative
procedure is proposed to overcome this.


• The j-th lag of the sample autocorrelation
function of the filtered series is the extended
sample autocorrelation function, and it is
denoted as
18

( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( ) 1 ,
1 , 1
1
1 ,
1
1 , 1 ,
ˆ
ˆ
ˆ ˆ ˆ
÷
÷ +
+
÷
÷
÷ +
÷ =
j m
m
j m
m
j m
i
j m
i
j m
i
|
|
| | |
( )
. ˆ
m
j
µ
ESACF
ESACF TABLE
19

AR
MA
0 1 2 3 …
0 …
1 …
2 …
3 …
… … … … … …
( ) 0
1
ˆ µ
( ) 0
2
ˆ µ
( ) 0
3
ˆ µ
( ) 0
4
ˆ µ
( ) 3
4
ˆ µ
( ) 3
3
ˆ µ
( ) 3
2
ˆ µ
( ) 2
2
ˆ µ
( ) 1
2
ˆ µ
( ) 3
1
ˆ µ
( ) 1
1
ˆ µ
( ) 2
1
ˆ µ
( ) 1
3
ˆ µ
( ) 1
4
ˆ µ
( ) 2
4
ˆ µ
( ) 2
3
ˆ µ
ESACF
• For an ARMA(p,q) process, we have the
following convergence in probability, that is,
for m=1,2,… and j=1,2,…, we have
20
( )
¹
´
¦
=
÷ < = s
=
otherwise 0, X
0 , 0
ˆ
q j p m
m
j
µ
ESACF
• Thus, the asymptotic ESACF table for ARMA(1,1)
model becomes
21

AR
MA
0 1 2 3 4 …
0 X X X X X …
1 X 0 0 0 0 …
2 X X 0 0 0 …
3 X X X 0 0 …
4 X X X X 0 …
… … … … … … …
ESACF
• In practice, we have finite samples and
may not be exactly zero.
However, we can use the Bartlett’s approximate
formula for the asymptotic variance of .
• The orders are tentatively identified by finding a
right (maximal) triangular pattern with vertices
located at (p+d, q) and (p+d, q
max
) and in which
all elements are insignificant (based on
asymptotic normality of the autocorrelation
function). The vertex (p+d, q) identifies the order.
22
( )
q j p m
m
j
÷ < ÷ s 0 , ˆ µ
( ) m
j
µˆ
MINIMUM INFORMATION CRITERION
MINIC TABLE
23
MA
AR 0 1 2 3 …
0 SBC(0,0) SBC(0,1) SBC(0,2) SBC(0,3) …
1 SBC(1,0) SBC(1,1) SBC(1,2) SBC(1,3) …
2 SBC(2,0) SBC(2,1) SBC(2,2) SBC(2,3) …
3 SBC(3,0) SBC(3,1) SBC(3,2) SBC(3,3) …
… … … … … …
NON-STATIONARY TIME SERIES MODELS
• Non-constant in mean


• Non-constant in variance


• Both
24
NON-STATIONARY TIME SERIES
MODELS
• Inspection of the ACF serves as a rough
indicator of whether a trend is present in a
series. A slow decay in ACF is indicative of a
large characteristic root; a true unit root
process, or a trend stationary process.
• Formal tests can help to determine whether a
system contains a trend and whether the
trend is deterministic or stochastic.
25
NON-STATIONARITY IN MEAN
• Deterministic trend
– Detrending
• Stochastic trend
– Differencing
26
DETERMINISTIC TREND
• A deterministic trend is when we say that the
series is trending because it is an explicit
function of time.
• Using a simple linear trend model, the
deterministic (global) trend can be estimated.
This way to proceed is very simple and
assumes the pattern represented by linear
trend remains fixed over the observed time
span of the series. A simple linear trend
model:
27
t t
a t Y + + = | o
DETERMINISTIC TREND
• The parameter | measure the average change
in Y
t
from one period to the another:



• The sequence {Y
t
} will exhibit only temporary
departures from the trend line o+|t. This type
of model is called a trend stationary (TS)
model.



28
( ) ( ) | |
( ) |
|
= A
÷ + ÷ ÷ = ÷ = A
÷ ÷
t
t t t t t
Y E
a a t t Y Y Y
1 1
1
TREND STATIONARY
• If a series has a deterministic time trend, then
we simply regress Y
t
on an intercept and a
time trend (t=1,2,…,n) and save the residuals.
The residuals are detrended series. If Y
t
is
stochastic, we do not necessarily get
stationary series.
29
DETERMINISTIC TREND
• Many economic series exhibit “exponential
trend/growth”. They grow over time like an
exponential function over time instead of a
linear function.
• For such series, we want to work with the log
of the series:
30
( )
( ) ( ) |
|
| o
= A
+ + =
t
t t
Y E
a t Y
ln
: is rate growth average the So
ln
DETERMINISTIC TREND
• Standard regression model can be used to
describe the phenomenon. If the deterministic
trend can be described by a k-th order
polynomial of time, the model of the process
31
( ). , 0 ~ where
2
2
2 1 0
a t
t
k
k t
WN a
a t t t Y
o
o o o o + + + + + = 
DETERMINISTIC TREND
• This model has a short memory.
• If a shock hits a series, it goes back to
trend level in short time. Hence, the best
forecasts are not affected.
• Rarely model like this is useful in practice.
A more realistic model involves stochastic
(local) trend.
32
STOCHASTIC TREND
• A more modern approach is to consider trends
in time series as a variable. A variable trend
exists when a trend changes in an
unpredictable way. Therefore, it is considered
as stochastic.
33
STOCHASTIC TREND
• Recall the AR(1) model: Y
t
= c +| Y
t−1
+ a
t
.
• As long as ||| < 1, everything is fine (OLS is
consistent, t-stats are asymptotically normal, ...).
• Now consider the extreme case where | = 1, i.e.
Y
t
= c + Y
t−1
+ a
t
.
• Where is the trend? No t term.
34
STOCHASTIC TREND
• Let us replace recursively the lag of Y
t
on the
right-hand side:
35
( )
¿
+ + =
+ + + + =
+ + =
=
÷ ÷
÷
t
i
i
t t t
t t t
a Y tc
a a Y c c
a Y c Y
1
0
1 2
1

Deterministic trend
• This is what we call a “random walk with
drift”. If c = 0, it is a“random walk”.
STOCHASTIC TREND
• Each a
i
shock represents shift in the intercept.
Since all values of {a
i
} have a coefficient of unity,
the effect of each shock on the intercept term is
permanent.
• In the time series literature, such a sequence is
said to have a stochastic trend since each a
i
shock
imparts a permanent and random change in the
conditional mean of the series. To be able to
define this situation, we use Autoregressive
Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) models.
36
DETERMINISTIC VS STOCHASTIC TREND
• They might appear similar since they both lead to
growth over time but they are quite different.
• To see why, suppose that through any policies, you
got a bigger Y
t
because the noise a
t
is big. What
will happen next period?
– With a deterministic trend, Y
t+1
= c +|(t+1)+a
t+1
.
The noise a
t
is not affecting Y
t+1
. Your stupendous
policy had a one period impact.
– With a stochastic trend, Y
t+1
= c + Y
t
+ a
t+1
= c +
(c + Y
t−1
+ a
t
) + a
t+1
. The noise a
t
is affecting Y
t+1
.
In fact, the policy will have a permanent impact.
37
DETERMINISTIC VS STOCHASTIC TREND
Conclusions:
– When dealing with trending series, we are always interested
in knowing whether the growth is a deterministic or
stochastic trend.
– There are also economic time series that do not grow over
time (e.g., interest rates) but we will need to check if they
have a behavior ”similar” to stochastic trends (| = 1 instead
of ||| < a, while c = 0).
– A deterministic trend refers to the long-term trend that is not
affected by short term fluctuations in the economy. Some of
the occurrences in the economy are random and may have a
permanent effect of the trend. Therefore the trend must
contain a deterministic and a stochastic component.


38
AUTOREGRESSIVE INTEGRATED
MOVING AVERAGE (ARIMA) PROCESSES
• Consider an ARIMA(p,d,q) process
39
( )( ) ( )
( )
( )
( ). 0, WN ~ and
roots common no share 1
and 1 where
1
2
a
1
1
0
o
u u u
| | |
u u |
t
q
q q
p
p p
t q t
d
p
a
B B B
B B B
a B Y B B
÷ ÷ ÷ =
÷ ÷ ÷ =
+ = ÷


ARIMA MODELS
• When d=0, u
0
is related to the mean of the
process.

• When d>0, u
0
is a deterministic trend term.
– Non-stationary in mean:

– Non-stationary in level and slope:
40
( ). 1
1 0 p
| | µ u ÷ ÷ ÷ = 
( )( ) ( )
t q t p
a B Y B B u u | + = ÷
0
1
( )( ) ( )
t q t p
a B Y B B u u | + = ÷
0
2
1
RANDOM WALK PROCESS
• A random walk is defined as a process where
the current value of a variable is composed of
the past value plus an error term defined as a
white noise (a normal variable with zero mean
and variance one).
• ARIMA(0,1,0) PROCESS
41
( )
( ). , 0 ~ where
1
2
1
a t
t t t t t t
WN a
a Y B Y a Y Y
o
= ÷ = A ¬ + =
÷
RANDOM WALK PROCESS
• Behavior of stock market.
• Brownian motion.
• Movement of a drunken men.
• It is a limiting process of AR(1).

42
RANDOM WALK PROCESS
• The implication of a process of this type is that the best
prediction of Y for next period is the current value, or
in other words the process does not allow to predict
the change (Y
t
÷Y
t-1
). That is, the change of Y is
absolutely random.
• It can be shown that the mean of a random walk
process is constant but its variance is not. Therefore a
random walk process is nonstationary, and its variance
increases with t.
• In practice, the presence of a random walk process
makes the forecast process very simple since all the
future values of Y
t+s
for s > 0, is simply Y
t
.

43
RANDOM WALK PROCESS

44
RANDOM WALK PROCESS

45
RANDOM WALK WITH DRIFT
• Change in Y
t
is partially deterministic and
partially stochastic.


• It can also be written as
46
t
Y
t t
a Y Y
t
+ = ÷
A
÷ 0 1
u
  


trend
stochastic
1
trend
tic determinis
0 0
¿
+ + =
=
t
i
i t
a t Y Y u
Pure model of a trend
(no stationary component)
RANDOM WALK WITH DRIFT
47
( )
0 0
u t Y Y E
t
+ =
After t periods, the cumulative change in Y
t
is tu
0
.
( ) flat not
0
¬ + =
+
u s Y Y Y E
t t s t
Each a
i
shock has a permanent effect on the
mean of Y
t
.
RANDOM WALK WITH DRIFT

48
ARIMA(0,1,1) OR IMA(1,1) PROCESS
• Consider a process



• Letting
49
( ) ( )
( ). , 0 ~ where
1 1
2
a t
t t
WN a
a B Y B
o
u ÷ = ÷
( )
t t
Y B W ÷ = 1
( ) stationary a B W
t t
¬ ÷ = u 1
ARIMA(0,1,1) OR IMA(1,1) PROCESS
• Characterized by the sample ACF of the
original series failing to die out and by the
sample ACF of the first differenced series
shows the pattern of MA(1).
• IF:
50
( ) . 1 where 1
1
u o o o ÷ = +
¿
÷ =
·
=
÷ t
j
j t
j
t
a Y Y
( ) ( )
¿
·
=
÷
÷
÷ ÷
÷ =
1
1
2 1
1 , ,
j
j t
j
t t t
Y Y Y Y E o o 
Exponentially decreasing. Weighted MA of its past values.
ARIMA(0,1,1) OR IMA(1,1) PROCESS

51
( ) ( ) | |   , , 1 , ,
2 1 1 1 ÷ ÷ ÷ +
÷ + =
t t t t t t t
Y Y Y E Y Y Y Y E o o
where o is the smoothing constant in the
method of exponential smoothing.
REMOVING THE TREND
• Shocks to a stationary time series are
temporary over time. The series revert to its
long-run mean.
• A series containing a trend will not revert to a
long-run mean. The usual methods for
eliminating the trend are detrending and
differencing.
52
DETRENDING
• Detrending is used to remove deterministic
trend.
• Regress Y
t
on time and save the residuals.
• Then, check whether residuals are stationary.
53
DIFFERENCING
• Differencing is used for removing the
stochastic trend.
• d-th difference of ARIMA(p,d,q) model is
stationary. A series containing unit roots can
be made stationary by differencing.
• ARIMA(p,d,q) ¬ d unit roots
54
Integrated of order d, I(d)
( ) d I Y
t
~
DIFFERENCING
• Random Walk:
55
t t t
a Y Y = ÷
÷1
t t
a Y = A
Non-stationary
Stationary
DIFFERENCING
• Differencing always makes us to loose
observation.
• 1st regular difference: d=1

• 2
nd
regular difference: d=2
56
( )
t t t t
Y Y Y Y B A = ÷ = ÷
÷1
1
( ) ( )
2 1
2 2
2
2 2 1 1
÷ ÷
+ ÷ = + ÷ = A = ÷
t t t t t t
Y Y Y Y B B Y Y B
difference 2nd not the is
2 ÷
÷
t t
Y Y
DIFFERENCING
57

Y
t
AY
t
A
2
Y
t
Y
t
÷Y
t-2

3 * * *
8 8÷3=5 * *
5 5÷8=÷3 ÷3÷5=÷8 5÷3=2
9 9÷5=4 4÷(÷3)=7 9÷8=1
KPSS TEST
• To be able to test whether we have a
deterministic trend vs stochastic trend, we are
using KPSS (Kwiatkowski, Phillips, Schmidt and
Shin) Test (1992).
58
( ) ( )
( ) stationary difference 1 ~ :
stationary or trend level 0 ~ :
1
0
÷
÷
I Y H
I Y H
t
t
KPSS TEST
STEP 1: Regress Y
t
on a constant and trend and
construct the OLS residuals e=(e
1
,e
2
,…,e
n
)’.
STEP 2: Obtain the partial sum of the residuals.


STEP 3: Obtain the test statistic


where is the estimate of the long-run variance
of the residuals.
59
¿
=
=
t
i
i t
e S
1
¿
=
=
÷
n
t
t
S
n KPSS
1
2
2
ˆ o
2
ˆ o
KPSS TEST
• STEP 4: Reject H
0
when KPSS is large, because
that is the evidence that the series wander
from its mean.
• Asymptotic distribution of the test statistic
uses the standard Brownian bridge.
• It is the most powerful unit root test but if
there is a volatility shift it cannot catch this
type non-stationarity.
60
PROBLEM
• When an inappropriate method is used to
eliminate the trend, we may create other
problems like non-invertibility.
• E.g.
61
( )
( )
( ) . and circle unit
the outside are 0 of roots the where
stationary Trend
1 0
t t
t t
a B
B
t Y B
u c
|
c o o |
=
=
¬ + + =
PROBLEM
• But if we misjudge the series as difference
stationary, we need to take a difference.
Actually, detrending should be applied. Then,
the first difference:
62
( ) ( )
t t
B Y B c o | ÷ + = A 1
1
Now, we create a non-invertible unit root
process in the MA component.
PROBLEM
• To overcome this, look at the inverse sample
autocorrelation function. If it has the same
ACF pattern of non-stationary process (that is,
slow decaying behavior), this means that we
over-differenced the series.
• Go back and detrend the series instead of
differencing.
• There are also smoothing filters to eliminate
the trend (Decomposition Methods).
63
NON-STATIONARITY IN VARIANCE
• Stationarity in mean Stationarity in variance
• Non-stationarity in mean Non-stationarity in
variance
• If the mean function is time dependent,
1. The variance, Var(Y
t
) is time dependent.
2. Var(Y
t
) is unbounded as t÷·.
3. Autocovariance and autocorrelation functions are
also time dependent.
4. If t is large wrt Y
0
, then µ
k
~ 1.

64
VARIANCE STABILIZING
TRANSFORMATION
• The variance of a non-stationary process
changes as its level changes

for some positive constant c and a function f.
• Find a function T so that the transformed
series T(Y
t
) has a constant variance.
65
| | ( )
t t
f c Y Var µ . =
The Delta Method
VARIANCE STABILIZING
TRANSFORMATION
• Generally, we use the power function
66
( ) 1964) Cox, and (Box
1
ì
ì
÷
=
t
t
Y
Y T
ì Transformation
÷1 1/Y
t

÷0.5 1/(Y
t
)
0.5

0 ln Y
t

0.5 (Y
t
)
0.5

1 Y
t
(no transformation)
VARIANCE STABILIZING
TRANSFORMATION
• Variance stabilizing transformation is only for
positive series. If your series has negative values,
then you need to add each value with a positive
number so that all the values in the series are
positive. Now, you can search for any need for
transformation.
• It should be performed before any other analysis
such as differencing.
• Not only stabilize the variance but also improves
the approximation of the distribution by Normal
distribution.
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