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UGB111

ORGANIZATION STUDIES
Module 1:
AN INTRODUCTION TO ORGANIZATION
STUDIES
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Learning Objectives
At the end of this lecture, students should be able
to:
• To examine the importance of the role of
organization in business environment and review
how organization concept evolved.
• To analyze the structure of organization and its
behavioral implications.

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Learning Outcomes
At the end of this lecture, students should be able to:

• understand the role of organization in the business
context.
• understand how organization interacts and its
relationship with people and social.
• review the basic structure of organization that
influence its behavioral.

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What is an Organization?
A consciously coordinated social unit, composed of two or
more people, that functions on a relatively continuous basis
to achieve a common goal or set of goals.


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What is Organization Studies?
The study of factors that have an impact on how people
and groups act, think, feel, and respond to work and
organizations, and how organizations respond to their
environments.


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What is Organization Studies?
Organization studies:
Provides a set of tools that
allow:
People to understand,
analyze, and describe
behavior in
organizations.
Managers to improve,
enhance or change work
behaviors so that the
individuals. groups and the
whole organization can
achieve their goals
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 Organization studies theories help you to make sense of
the workplace
• Question and rebuild your personal theories for work
• Important -- much of our time is in organizations

 Organization studies provides knowledge/tools to work
with others
• Helps you to get things done

 Good understanding on organization studies can help
improve an organization’s financial health


Importance of Organization Studies
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Levels of Analysis
Group Level





Individual
Level
Organizational Level
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Components of Organization Studies
Understanding
organization studies
requires studying
Part One: Individuals in Organizations
Part Two: Group and Team Processes
Part Three: Organization System
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What is Management?
• Management is the process of planning, organizing,
leading, and controlling an organization’s human,
financial, material, and other resources to increase its
effectiveness
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Four Functions of Management
Planning
Decide on organizational goals
and allocate and use
resources to
achieve those goals
Organizing
Establish the rules and
reporting relationships that
allow people to
achieve organizational goals
Controlling
Evaluate how well the
organization is achieving goals
and take action to
maintain, improve, and correct
performance
Leading
Encourage and coordinate
individuals and groups
so that they work
toward organizational goals
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Mintzberg’s Managerial Roles
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Mintzberg’s Managerial Roles
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Mintzberg’s Managerial Roles
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Managerial Skills
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Allocation of Activities by Time
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Challenges for Organization Studies
1. Changing Social/ Cultural Environment
2. Evolving Global Environment
3. Advancing Information Technology
4. Employment Relationships
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Changing Social and Cultural Environment
• National culture
• Organizational ethics and well-being
• Diverse work force
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Diversity Challenges
•Fairness and Justice
•Decision-Making and Performance
•Flexibility
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Diversity
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Evolving Global Environment
• Understanding Global
Differences
• Improve Organization’s
Behaviors and Procedures in
Response to Those
Differences

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Advancing Information Technology
• Information
• Knowledge
• Information Technology
• Organizational Learning
• Intranets
• Creativity
• Innovation
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Employment Relationships
• Downsizing
• Empowerment and Self-Managed Teams
• Contingent Workers
• Outsourcing
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Identify the six elements of an organization’s
structure
(Source: Robbins and Judge, 2012)
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Identify the six elements of an organization’s
structure
1. Work Specialization

• By the late 1940s, most manufacturing jobs in
industrialized countries were being done this way.

• Managers also looked for other efficiencies that
could be achieved through work specialization.
• Repetition of work
• Training for specialization
• Increasing efficiency through invention

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1
Identify the six elements of an organization’s
structure
(Source: Robbins and Judge, 2012)
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2. Departmentalization

• Grouping jobs together so common tasks can be
coordinated is called departmentalization.
• By functions performed
• By type of product or service the organization
produces
• By geography or territory
• By process differences
• By type of customer
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Identify the six elements of an organization’s
structure
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3. Chain of Command

• Once a cornerstone in design of organizations,
• "an unbroken line of authority that extends from
the top of the organization to the lowest echelon
and clarifies who reports to whom."
• Two complementary concepts: authority and unity
of command.
• Authority
• Unity-of-command
Identify the six elements of an organization’s
structure
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3. Chain of Command (con’t)

• Less relevant today because of technology and the
trend of empowering employees.
• Operating employees make decisions previously
reserved for management.
• The popularity of self-managed and cross-
functional teams.
• Many organizations find that enforcing the chain of
command is most productive

Identify the six elements of an organization’s
structure
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Identify the six elements of an organization’s
structure
(Source: Robbins and Judge, 2012)
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4. Centralization and Decentralization

• Centralization refers to the degree to which decision-
making is concentrated at a single point in the
organization.
• Decentralized organization can act more quickly to
solve problems, more people provide input into
decisions, and employees are less likely to feel
alienated from those who make decisions that affect
their work lives.

Identify the six elements of an organization’s
structure
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4. Centralization and Decentralization
• A bureaucracy is characterized by:
• Highly routine operating tasks.
• Very formalized rules and regulations.
• Tasks grouped into functional departments.
• Centralized authority.
• Narrow spans of control.
• Decision-making that follows the chain of
command.

Identify the six elements of an organization’s
structure
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4. Centralization and Decentralization
The Matrix Structure
• It combines two forms of departmentalization—
functional and product:
• The strength of functional is putting specialists
together.

• Product departmentalization facilitates coordination.
• It provides clear responsibility for all activities
related to a product, but with duplication of
activities and costs.


Identify the six elements of an organization’s
structure
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Identify the six elements of an organization’s
structure
(Source: Robbins and Judge, 2012)
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Contrast mechanistic and organic structural
models
(Source: Robbins and Judge, 2012)
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REFERENCES
Main text:

• Robbins, S & Judge, T (2012). Organizational Behavior, 15 edn, Prentice-
Hall, US.

Supplementary text:

• McShane, S.L. & Von Glinow, M.A. (2008). Organizational Behavior, 4 edn,
McGraw-Hill, US.

• Jennifer, M.G. & Gareth, R.J. (2011). Understanding and Managing
Organizational Behavior, 6 edn, Prentice-Hall, US.

• Buelens, M., Sinding, K. & Waldstrom, C. (2011). Organizational Behavior,
4 edn, McGraw-Hill.

• Newstrom, J.W. (2007). Human Behavior at Work, McGraw-Hill