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Mhmood M.H. Radhi
Final year
• Glass ionomer cement is a tooth colored
material, introduced by Wilson et al in 1970.
• It can be used as luting cements or lining
under another restoration or as restorative
I. For luting
II. For restoration

III. For liner & bases

Type II.1 Restorative esthetic
Type II.2 Restorative reinforced
Powder :-
It is an acid soluble calcium fluroalumino silicate glass.

Silica - 41.9%
Alumina - 28.6%
Aluminum fluoride - 1.6%
Calcium fluoride - 15.7%
Sodium fluoride - 9.3%
Aluminum phosphate - 3.8%

Liquid :-
1.Polyacrylic acid in the form co-polymer with itaconic acid
& malic acid .
2.Tartaric acid: improves handling characteristic
& increase working time.
3.Water : Medium of reaction & hydrates the
reaction products

When the powder &
liquid are mixed,
Surface of glass
particles are
attacked by acid.
then Ca, Al,
sodium, & fluoride
ions are leached
into aqueous

Calcium ion cross-link the poly acrylic acid chains,
This forms a solid mass.
In next phase, aluminum also begins to cross-link
with poly acrylic acids chains.
Water plays an important role in structure of
cement. Initially it serves as the medium, later it
slowly hydrates the matrix.
The unreacted glass(powder) particle is covered by
a silica gel.

 The set cements consists of agglomeration of
unreacted powder particles surrounded by a silica gel
sheath and embedded in a matrix of hydrated calcium
and aluminum cross-liked poly acrylic gel.
 The exposure of cement to water before hardening is
complete, leads to loss of cations and anions which
form a matrix as they can be dissolved.
 Thus it is very important to protect the cement surface
after its placed in the mouth e.g. by applying a varnish

 Initial solubility is high due to leaching of intermediate

 The complete setting reaction takes place in 24 hrs,
cement should be protected from saliva during this
Adhesion :-
☻ It adheres well to enamel and dentine.
☻ Glass ionomer cement bonds chemically to the tooth
Esthetics :-
GIC is tooth colored material & available in different
Inferior to composites.
They lack translucency & rough surface texture.
It may be stain with time.
Biocompatibility :-
 The GIC show high degree of compatibility with living
 Pulpal response is mild due to
- High buffering capacity of hydroxy apatite.
- Large molecular weight of the polyacrylic
acid ,which prevents entry into dentinal tubules.

Anticariogenic properties :-
•Fluoride is released from glass ionomer at the time of
mixing & lies with in matrix.
1.Preparation of tooth surface :-
2.Proportioning & mixing :-
 Powder & liquid ratio is 3:1 by wt. Powder & liquid is
dispensed just prior to mixing.
 First increment is incorporated rapidly into the mix with
stiff bladed spatula.
 Mixing done in folding method to preserves gel
 Finished mix should have a glossy surface.
 Stiff mixing spatula is preferred.

3. Protection of cement during setting :-
 GIC is extremely sensitive to air and water during
 It should be protected from moisture as well as drying
during setting for few days.
4. Finishing :-
 Excess material should be trimmed from margins.
 Hand instruments are preferred to rotary tools to avoid
 Further finishing is done after 24hrs.
5.Protection of cement after setting :-

 Before dismissing the patient ,restoration is again
coated with the protective agent to protect trimmed
 Failure to protect for first 24hrs results in weaken

♣ Adhesive
♣ Esthetic
♣ Fluoride releasing

♦ Susceptible to erosion and wear
♦ brittle

1.Anhydrous GIC :-
 Liquid is delivered in a freeze dried form ,which is
incorporated into the powder.
 Liquid used is clean water.
2.Resin modified GIC:-
Powder component consist of ion leachable
fluroalumino silicate glass particles & initator for light
Liquid component consist of water & poly acrylic acid
with methacrylate & hydroxyl ethyl methacrylate

3.Metal modified GIC :-
 Glass ionomer have been modified by addition of filler
particles ,to improve strength ,fracture toughness &
resistance to wear.
Silver alloy admix :-
 This is made by mixing of spherical silver amalgam
alloy powder with type II GIC powder.
 Bonding of silver particles to glass ionomer particles
by fusion through high temperature sintering.
4.Compomer :-
 Compomer is a composite resin that uses an ionomer
glass which is the major component of glass ionomer
as the filler.
 Small quantity of dehydrated polyalkenoic acid
incorporated with filler particles,
 Setting reaction is light activated.
 Adhesive system used with compomer is based on acid
etch found with all composite resin.

 Resistance to fracture is one of the main limitation
of using GIC. It is generally quite satisfactory for
one-surface lesion but a two surface lesion is
always at risk.
 Resistance to abrasion and wear is little less than
composite resin.
 They also remain susceptible to dehydration
through out lifespan, so that pt. with dry mouth
should not have restoration with GIC.

 Text book of pedodontics, Shoba Tandon, 2

edition .
 Dental material book, John J.M. 3