Australian Centre for Christianity and Culture

Charles Sturt University th 20 . Anniversary Oration
James Hardie Room Centre for Professional Development Bathurst Campus Tuesday, 14 April 2009

Islam and Christianity: Can the Two Live Together in Peace?
Rev Professor James Haire AM
KSJ MA PhD HonDD HonDLitt HonDUniv Professor of Theology, Charles Sturt University (CSU) Executive Director, Australian Centre for Christianity and Culture, CSU Director, Public and Contextual Theology Strategic Research Centre, CSU Canberra

The Five Pillars of Islam
1. The declaration of faith, to “Testify that there is no deity except God and that Muhammed is His Messenger” (Shahadah) 2. To pray five times a day (Salat/Salah) 3. To pay the yearly alms (Zakat/Zakah) 4. To fast during the month of Ramadan (Sawm) 5. To make the pilgrimage to Makkah/Mecca (Hajj)

Glossary
Allah: Eid al-Fitr: Halal: imam: mufti: God occurs immediately after the month of Ramadan permissible under Islamic law a leader in prayer a Muslim scholar of Islamic law who can issue Islamic legal opinions Qur‘an: the Holy Scripture of Islam, revealed to the Prophet Muhammad between 610 and 632, in Arabic Ramadan: the 9th month of the Islamic calendar, the month of fasting shari‘a: Islamic law Shi‘a: an Islamic religio-political/theological grouping Sufism: a movement within Islam that emphasises Islamic spirituality Sunni: the mainstream Muslim community to which approximately 85 percent of the Muslim population of the world belongs

Source:Abdullad Saeed (2003) Islam in Australia, Allen & Unwin, Crows Nest.

Muslims of the World
There are approx 1.3 billion Muslims (~20% of world population).

Around 83% of Muslims belong to the Sunni community The minority Shi’a are concentrated in Iran and Iraq About half of the world’s Muslims live in South and SE-Asia. <20% are Arabs
Source: National Geographic, January 2002

Muslim Groupings
Shi'a 16%

Other 1%

Sunni 83%

Source: National Geographic, January 2002

Muslims and Arabs
20% of Muslims are Arabs 5% of Arabs are non-Muslim

1.3 billion Muslims

Source: National Geographic, January 2002

Comparative populations
Christians Muslims 1900 world population 1980 world population 2000 world population 26.9% 30% 29.9% 12.4% 16.5% 19.2%

Source: http//muslim-canada.org/muslimstats.html.

Strongly Majority Muslim Nations
Well over 95% of the citizenry/indigenous population of the following countries are Muslim: Bahrain Comoros Kuwait Maldives Mauritania Mayotte Morocco Oman Qatar Somalia Saudi Arabia Tunisia United Arab Emirates Western Sahara Yemen

Source: http://www.adherents.com/largecom/com_islam.html

9 Largest National Muslim Populations
Country Indonesia Pakistan Bangladesh India Turkey Iran Egypt Nigeria China
Source: http://www.adherents.com/largecom/com_islam.html

Number of Muslims 170,310,000 136,000,000 106,050,000 103,000,000 62,410,000 60,790,000 53,730,000 47,720,000 37,108,000

9 Largest National Muslim Populations
180 160 140 120
Indonesia

100 Millions 80 60 40 20 0

Pakistan

Bangladesh

India

Turkey

Iran

Egypt

Nigeria

Source: National Geographic, January 2002

China

Islam and Refugees
The majority of the world’s estimated refugees are Muslim. And most of them take refuge in other Muslim countries..

Country of Main country Origin of asylum
Afghanistan Burundi Iraq Sudan Pakistan/Iran Tanzania Iran Uganda

Refugees ('000)
3,580 568 513 490

Source: United Nations High Commission for Refugees, Refugees by Numbers 2001 Edition, www.unhcr.ch

Other Sizeable Muslim Communities
6 5

 US ~ 5.7 million Muslims
(roughly equivalent to the Jewish population)

4

2

US

3

France

0

Sources: http://www.adherents.com/largecom/com_islam.html. Statistical, Economic and Social Research Training Centre for Islamic Countries, Ankara, Turkey. ABS 2001 Census of Population and Housing: Muslim Community Profile: Birthplace of individual: Top 25 (based on total Muslim population. Adjusted for Australia © Commonwealth of Australia 2002.

Australia

UK

1

Germany

    
Canada

France ~ 3 million Germany ~ 2.5 million UK ~ 1.5 million Canada ~ 500,000 Australia ~ 360,000

Millions

Australian Muslims by country of birth
Jordan United Kingdom Kuwait South Africa Singapore Yugoslavia, Federal Republic of Syria Macedonia, FRY India Malaysia Egypt Somalia Cyprus Fiji Iran Bangladesh Sri Lanka All Other

Australia

Iraq Indonesia Pakistan Bosnia and Herzegovina Afghanistan Lebanon Turkey

Source: ABS 2001, Census of Population and Housing: Muslim Community Profile: Birthplace of individual: Top 25 (based on total Muslim Population). © Commonwealth of Australia 2002

Early History
 Mecca originated when Abraham took Hagar and Ishmael to a barren place and water miraculously appeared. This became Mecca.  Muhammed was born in the town of Mecca in 570.  In 610, the Prophet Muhammed received his first revelation and was commissioned as the Messenger of God.  Muhammed preached about the idea of one God and the need for social and economic justice.  Following persecution, Muhammed and his followers fled Mecca to Medina in 622. This migration marked the beginning of the Islamic calendar.  Battles ensued with the people of Mecca who were defeated in the Battle of Khandaq. Muslim influence increased.  Muhammed returned to and gained control of Mecca in 630.  The prophet Muhammed died in Medina in 632.  In the next century, Christian Byzantines and Zoroastrian Sassinids regard emergence of Islam as a threat. Muslim political rule spread west to Spain and east to the borders of China, India and Central Asia.
Source:Abdullad Saeed (2003) Islam in Australia, Allen & Unwin, Crows Nest.

Further chronology
712 Muslims advance in Spain, Sind and Tranoxiana 732 The Battle of Tours in France 763 Foundation of Baghdad 969 The Fatimids conquer Egypt 1091 The Normans conquer the island of Sicily; end of the Muslim rule there 1095 The first crusade 1099 The Crusaders capture Jerusalem 1194 Occupation of Delhi by the Muslims 1453 Capture of Constantinople by the Turks 1529 Unsuccessful Ottoman siege of Vienna 1550 Islam spreads to Java, the Moluccas, and Borneo 1683 Second Ottoman siege of Vienna and retreat 1827 Malaya became a preserve of the British 1828 Russia declared war against Turkey 1857 British captured Delhi and eliminated Mughal rule in India after 332 years 1882 Egypt came under British military occupation 1907 The beginning of the Young Turks movement in Turkey 1912 The beginning of the Muhammadiyya reform movement in Indonesia 1916 Arab revolt against Ottoman (Turkish) rule. Lawrence of Arabia leads attacks on the Hijaz Railway 1924 The Ottoman Turkish Caliphate is abolished 1924 King Abd al-Aziz conquers Mecca and Medina 1928 Turkey is decaled a secular state 1932 Iraq granted independence by the League of Nations 1935 Iran becomes the official name of Persia 1936 Increased Jewish immigration provokes widespread Arab-Jewish fighting in Palestine 1947 Creation of Pakistan 1948 Creation of state of Israel. Arab armies suffer defeat in war with Israel. 1956 Morocco becomes independent 1956 Tunisia becomes independent

Source:Abdullad Saeed (2003) Islam in Australia, Allen & Unwin, Crows Nest.

A Cyclic Culture Nature Culture Agricultural Culture

A1

Cyclic/Nature/Agricultural Culture
Harvest/Death

Maturity

New Life Birth Rebirth

B Writing Culture Book Culture Trading Culture

Essential Beliefs
1. Belief in one God 2. Belief in the prophets 3. Belief in the Scriptures 4. Belief in angels 5. Belief in the Day of Judgement 6. Belief in God’s foreknowledge and destiny

Source:Abdullad Saeed (2003) Islam in Australia, Allen & Unwin, Crows Nest.

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