EEAST is a complete R & D Organization dedicated to provide Electronics and Advanced Software Products and Solutions to its Clients.

Achieving the needs of our customer and converting their ideas to real models is our motto. We are working in the field of Embedded Systems, Automation and Advanced System design for the last four years with the vision of becoming a center of Excellence to provide Solutions, Services and Training in various fields of technologies.

• Embedded system means the processor is embedded into that application. • An embedded product uses a microprocessor or microcontroller to do one task only. • In an embedded system, there is only one application software that is typically burned into ROM. • Example : printer, keyboard, video game player

• Things with computers that are not computers themselves
– Refrigerators, toys, industrial robots, ...

• 98% of all microprocessors go into embedded systems
– Embedded systems are everywhere! – 50% much smaller than PC microprocessors
• 8-bit microprocessors

• Use a microprocessor or microcontroller to do one task only
– Printer

• PC used for any number of applications
– Word processor, print-server, bank teller terminal, video game player, network server, internet terminal

• PC contains or is connected to various embedded products
– Keyboard, printer, modem, disk controller, sound card, CD-ROM driver, mouse

• X86 PC embedded applications

• Home
– Appliances, intercom, telephones, security systems, garage door openers, answering machines, fax machines, home computers, TVs, cable TV tuner, VCR, camcorder, remote controls, video games, cellular phones, musical instruments, sewing machines, lighting control, paging, camera, pinball machines, toys, exercise equipment

• Office
– Telephones, computers, security systems, fax machines, microwave, copier, laser printer, color printer, paging

• Auto
– Trip computer, engine control, air bag, ABS, instrumentation, security system, transmission control, entertainment, climate control, cellular phone, keyless entry

• The microprocessor is the core of computer systems. • Nowadays many communication, digital entertainment, portable devices, are controlled by them. • A designer should know what types of components he needs, ways to reduce production costs and product reliable.

General-purpose microprocessor
• • • CPU for Computers No RAM, ROM, I/O on CPU chip itself Example : Intel’s x86, Motorola’s 680x0


CPU GeneralPurpose Microprocesso r

Data Bus RAM ROM

Many chips on mother’s board I/O Port Time r Seri al COM Port

Address Bus

General-Purpose Microprocessor System

Microprocessor vs. Microcontroller Microprocessor Microcontroller
• CPU is stand-alone, RAM, ROM, I/O, timer are separate • designer can decide on the amount of ROM, RAM and I/O ports. • expansive • versatility • general-purpose • CPU, RAM, ROM, I/O and timer are all on a single chip • fix amount of on-chip ROM, RAM, I/O ports • for applications in which cost, power and space are critical • single-purpose

Microprocessor vs. Microcontroller

• Computing needs
– Speed, packaging, power consumption, RAM, ROM, I/O pins, timers, upgrade to high performance or low-power versions, cost

• Software development tools
– Assembler, debugger, C compiler, emulator, technical support

• Availability & source

Microcontroller :
• A smaller computer • On-chip RAM, ROM, I/O ports... • Example : Motorola’s 6811, Intel’s 8051, Zilog’s Z8 and PIC 16X



ROM Seri I/O Time al Port r COM Port

A single chip

• Some Companies Producing a Member of the 8051/8952 Family
Company Intel Atmel Philips/Signetics Siemens Dallas Semiconductor Web Site

Companies Producing 8051/8952

Advantages of using MCU

• • • • •

Small – Single chip is smaller than a PC Cheap Low power consumption Low heat High efficiency – have only required units

Three criteria in Choosing a Microcontroller
1. meeting the computing needs of the task efficiently and cost effectively • speed, the amount of ROM and RAM, the number of I/O ports and timers, size, packaging, power consumption • easy to upgrade • cost per unit 1. availability of software development tools • assemblers, debuggers, C compilers, emulator, simulator, technical support 1. wide availability and reliable sources of the microcontrollers.

Introduction Block Diagram and Pin Description of the AT89C52. Registers Memory mapping in AT89C52. AT89C52 Flag bits and the PSW register Stack in the AT89C52.

8051 Family
• Comparison of 8051 Family Members Feature
ROM (on chip program space in bytes) RAM (bytes) Timers I/O pins Serial port Interrupt sources

4K 128 2 32 1 6

8052 8031
8k 256 3 32 1 8 0k 128 2 32 1 6

Inside 8051 Microcontroller
• Introduced by Intel in 1981

Pin Description of the 8051
P1.0 P1.1 P1.2 P1.3 P1.4 P1.5 P1.6 P1.7 RST (RXD)P3.0 (TXD)P3.1 (INT0)P3.2 (INT1)P3.3 (T0)P3.4 (T1)P3.5 (WR)P3.6 (RD)P3.7 XTAL2 XTAL1 GND 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 40 39 38 37 36 35 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 Vcc P0.0(AD0 ) P0.1(AD1) P0.2(AD2 ) 0.3(AD3) P P0.4(AD4) P0.5(AD5) P0.6(AD6) P0.7(AD7) EA/VPP ALE/PROG PSEN P2.7(A15) P2.6(A14 ) 2.5(A13 P ) 2.4(A12 P ) P2.3(A11 ) P2.2(A10) P2.1(A9) P2.0(A8)


Pins of 8051 ( 1/4 )
• Vcc ( pin 40 ): – Vcc provides supply voltage to the chip. – The voltage source is +5V. • GND ( pin 20 ): ground • XTAL1 and XTAL2 ( pins 19,18 ): – These 2 pins provide external clock. – Way 1 : using a quartz crystal oscillator – Way 2 : using a TTL oscillator – Example 4-1 shows the relationship between XTAL and the machine cycle.

Pins of 8051 ( 2/4 )
• RST ( pin 9 ): reset – It is an input pin and is active high ( normally low ) . • The high pulse must be high at least 2 machine cycles. – It is a power-on reset. • Upon applying a high pulse to RST, the microcontroller will reset and all values in registers will be lost. • Reset values of some 8051 registers – Way 1 : Power-on reset circuit – Way 2 : Power-on reset with debounce

Pins of I/O Port
• The 8051 has four I/O ports – Port 0 ( pins 32-39 ): P0 ( P0.0 ~ P0.7 ) – Port 1 ( pins 1-8 ) : P1 ( P1.0 ~ P1.7 ) – Port 2 ( pins 21-28 ): P2 ( P2.0 ~ P2.7 ) – Port 3 ( pins 10-17 ): P3 ( P3.0 ~ P3.7 ) – Each port has 8 pins. • Named P0.X ( X=0,1,...,7 ) , P1.X, P2.X, P3.X • Ex : P0.0 is the bit 0 ( LSB ) of P0 • Ex : P0.7 is the bit 7 ( MSB ) of P0 • These 8 bits form a byte. • Each port can be used as input or output (bi-direction).

Pins of 8051 ( 3/4 )
• /EA ( pin 31 ): external access – There is no on-chip ROM in 8031 and 8032 . – The /EA pin is connected to GND to indicate the code is stored externally. – /PSEN & ALE are used for external ROM. – For 8051, /EA pin is connected to Vcc. – “/” means active low. • /PSEN ( pin 29 ): program store enable – This is an output pin and is connected to the OE pin of the ROM.

Pins of 8051 ( 4/4 )
• ALE ( pin 30 ): address latch enable – It is an output pin and is active high. – 8051 port 0 provides both address and data. – The ALE pin is used for de-multiplexing the address and data by connecting to the G pin of the 74LS373 latch. • I/O port pins – The four ports P0, P1, P2, and P3. – Each port uses 8 pins. – All I/O pins are bi-directional.

Dual Role of Port 0
• When connecting an 8051/8031 to an external memory, the 8051 uses ports to send addresses and read instructions. – 8031 is capable of accessing 64K bytes of external memory. – 16-bit address : P0 provides both address A0-A7, P2 provides address A8-A15. – Also, P0 provides data lines D0-D7. • When P0 is used for address/data multiplexing, it is connected to the 74LS373 to latch the address. – There is no need for external pull-up resistors

Port 0 with Pull-Up Resistors
Vcc 10 K

P0.0 DS500 P0.1 P0.2 0 P0.3 8751 P0.4 P0.5 8951 P0.6 P0.7

Port 0

A B R0 R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 R7 Some 8-bitt Registers of the 8051 Some 8051 16-bit Register PC PC

8051 Flag bits and the PSW register
• PSW Register

Carry flag Auxiliary carry flag Available to the user for general purpose Register Bank selector bit 1 Register Bank selector bit 0 Overflow flag User define bit Parity flag Set/Reset odd/even parity


RS1 0 0 1 1

RS0 0 1 0 1

Register Bank 0 1 2 3

Address 00H-07H 08H-0FH 10H-17H 18H-1FH

Stack in the 8051
• The register used to access the stack is called SP (stack pointer) register. • The stack pointer in the 8051 is only 8 bits wide, which means that it can take value 00 to FFH. When 8051 powered up, the SP register contains value 07.
7FH Scratch pad RAM 30H 2FH Bit-Addressable RAM 20H 1FH 18H 17H 10H 0FH 08H 07H 00H

Register Bank 3 Register Bank 2 Stack) Register) Bank 1 Register Bank 0

Now we can program...
● But how do we get the programs onto the devices?

• Write a program in embedded C language. • Execute it. • View the output of program on peripheral devices as provided in Keil software. • Now burn the program on AT89C52 using burner. • Now apply the chip with hardware.

• hardware or software used to interface two computers or programs or devices

Interfacing used
• • • • • • LED Seven Segment Display LCD Display Stepper Motor Switch Buzzer

• Block Diagram • Layout • Circuit Diagram




• This animation demonstrates the principle for a stepper motor using full step commutation. The rotor of a permanent magnet stepper motor consists of permanent magnets and the stator has two pairs of windings. Just as the rotor aligns with one of the stator poles, the second phase is energized. The two phases alternate on and off and also reverse polarity. There are four steps. One phase lags the other phase by one step. This is equivalent to one forth of an electrical cycle or 90°.


• This stepper motor is very simplified. The rotor of a real stepper motor usually has many poles. The animation has only ten poles, however a real stepper motor might have a hundred. These are formed using a single magnet mounted inline with the rotor axis and two pole pieces with many teeth. The teeth are staggered to produce many poles. The stator poles of a real stepper motor also has many teeth. The teeth are arranged so that the two phases are still 90° out of phase. This stepper motor uses permanent magnets. Some stepper motors do not have magnets and instead use the basic principles of a switched reluctance motor. The stator is similar but the rotor is composed of a iron laminates.


• Note how the phases are driven so that the rotor takes half steps


• Animation shows how coils are energized for full steps


• Full step sequence showing how binary numbers can control the motor

• Half step sequence of binary control numbers

LCD Display

Optocoupler Devices
IC’s used in Automation ,to provide isolation Why isolation is required? Because microcontroller works on 5V and other devices)Stepper Motor , Fan) works on greater than 5V . Any spike of greater of 5V can burn microcontroller .

Pin diagram of 4N35

Electromagnetic Relay

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