=
2 p
f
n
sy
= The synchronous speed is
10/8/2014 360 Chapter 7 Induction Motor 28
Motor Force Generation
10/8/2014 360 Chapter 7 Induction Motor 29
Induction Motors
The interaction
between the magnetic
field B and the
current generates a
force
F = B L I
+
B B B B
F
B
Figure 7.15 Force direction on a current
carrying conductor placed in a magnetic
field (B) (current into the page).
10/8/2014 360 Chapter 7 Induction Motor 30
Induction Motors
Force generation in a motor
The threephase winding
generates a rotating field;
The rotating field induces a
current in the rotor bars;
The current generation requires
a speed difference between the
rotor and the magnetic field;
The interaction between the
field and the current produces
the driving force.
B
rotating
Force
I
r
Rotor Bar
Ring
Figure 7.16 Rotating
magnetic field generated
driving force.
10/8/2014 360 Chapter 7 Induction Motor 31
7.3.2 Equivalent circuit
10/8/2014 360 Chapter 7 Induction Motor 32
Induction Motors
An induction motor has two magnetically coupled circuits:
the stator and the rotor. The latter is shortcircuited.
This is similar to a transformer, whose secondary is
rotating and shortcircuited.
The motor has balanced threephase circuits; consequently,
the singlephase representation is sufficient.
Both the stator and rotor have windings, which have
resistance and leakage inductance.
The stator and rotor winding are represented by a
resistance and leakage reactance connected in series
10/8/2014 360 Chapter 7 Induction Motor 33
Induction Motors
A transformer represents the magnetic coupling
between the two circuits.
The stator produces a rotating magnetic field that
induces voltage in both windings.
A magnetizing reactance (Xm) and a resistance connected in
parallel represent the magnetic field generation.
The resistance (Rc) represents the eddy current and hysteresis
losses in the iron core
The induced voltage is depend on the slip and the turn
ratio
10/8/2014 360 Chapter 7 Induction Motor 34
Induction Motors
Stator Rotor
X
rot_m
= e
rot
L
rot
R
rot
I
rot
V
rot
= s V
rot_s
R
sta
I
rot_t
V
sta
V
sup
I
sta
X
m
R
c
X
sta
= e
sy
L
sta
Figure 7.17 Singlephase equivalent circuit of a
threephase induction motor.
10/8/2014 360 Chapter 7 Induction Motor 35
Induction Motors
In this circuit, the magnetizing reactance generates a flux that
links with both the stator and the rotor and induces a voltage in
both circuits.
The magnetic flux rotates with constant amplitude and
synchronous speed.
This flux cuts the stationary conductors of the stator with the
synchronous speed and induces a 60 Hz voltage in the stator
windings.
The rms value of the voltage induced in the stator is:
2
max sy sta
sta
N
V
e u
=
10/8/2014 360 Chapter 7 Induction Motor 36
Induction Motors
The flux rotates with the synchronous speed and the rotor
with the motor speed.
Consequently, the flux cuts the rotor conductors with the
speed difference between the rotating flux and the rotor.
The speed difference is calculated using the slip equation:
The induced voltage is:
s
sy m sy
e e e = ) (
2 2
) (
max max
s N N
V
sy rot m sy rot
rot
e e e u
=
u
=
10/8/2014 360 Chapter 7 Induction Motor 37
Induction Motors
The division of the rotor and stator induced voltage
results in:
This speed difference determines the frequency of the rotor
current
s V s V
N
N
V
s rot sta
sta
rot
rot _
= =
sy
sy m sy
rot
rot
f s
s
f = =
= =
t
e
t
e e
t
e
2 2 2
10/8/2014 360 Chapter 7 Induction Motor 38
Induction Motors
The division of the rotor and stator induced voltage
results in:
This speed difference determines the frequency of the rotor
current
The rotor circuit leakage reactance is:
s V s V
N
N
V
s rot sta
sta
rot
rot _
= =
sy
sy m sy
rot
rot
f s
s
f = =
= =
t
e
t
e e
t
e
2 2 2
s X s L L X
rot sy rot rot rot m rot
= = = e e
_
10/8/2014 360 Chapter 7 Induction Motor 39
Induction Motors
The relation between rotor current and the rotor
induced voltage is calculated by the loop voltage
equation:
The division of this equation with the slip yields
The implementation of this equation simplifies the
equivalent circuit
) ( s X j R s
rot rot
+ = =
rot rot_s rot
I V V

.

\

+ =
rot
rot
X j
s
R
rot rot_s
I V
10/8/2014 360 Chapter 7 Induction Motor 40
Induction Motors
Stator Rotor
X
sta
X
rot
R
rot
/s
I
rot
V
rot_s
R
sta
I
rot_t
V
sta
V
sup
I
sta
X
m
R
c
Figure 7.18 Modified equivalent circuit of a threephase
induction motor.
The rotor impedance is transferred to the stator side. This
eliminates the transformer
10/8/2014 360 Chapter 7 Induction Motor 41
Induction Motors
Figure 7.19 Simplified equivalent circuit of a threephase
induction motor.
Stator Rotor
X
sta
X
rot_t
R
rot_t
/s
I
rot_t
V
sta
R
sta
V
sup
I
sta
X
m
R
c
Air gap
10/8/2014 360 Chapter 7 Induction Motor 42
Induction Motors
The last modification of the equivalent circuit is the
separation of the rotor resistance into two parts:
The obtained resistance represents the outgoing
mechanical power
 
t rot t rot
t rot
R
s
s
R
s
R
_ _
_
1
+ =
 
t rot
R
s
s
_
1
10/8/2014 360 Chapter 7 Induction Motor 43
Induction Motors
Stator Rotor
X
sta
X
rot_t
R
rot_t
I
rot_t
V
sta
R
sta
V
sup
I
sta
X
m
R
c
Air gap
R
rot_t
(1s)/s
Figure 7.20 Final singlephase equivalent circuit of a threephase
induction motor.
10/8/2014 360 Chapter 7 Induction Motor 44
7.3.3 Motor performance
10/8/2014 360 Chapter 7 Induction Motor 45
Induction Motors
Figure 7.21 shows the energy balance in a motor.
The supply power is:
The power transferred through the air gap by the
magnetic coupling is the input power (P
sup
) minus the
stator copper loss and the magnetizing (stator iron)
loss.
The electrically developed power (P
dv
) is the difference
between the air gap power (P
ag
) and rotor copper loss.
( )
*
sta sup sup
I V S 3 Re ) Re( P
sup
= =
10/8/2014 360 Chapter 7 Induction Motor 46
Induction Motors
The electrically developed power can be computed
from the power dissipated in the second term of rotor
resistance:
The subtraction of the mechanical ventilation and
friction losses (P
mloss
) from the developed power gives
the mechanical output power

.

\

=
s
s
R
t rot
1
3 P
_
2
dv rot_t
I
mloss dv out
P P P =
10/8/2014 360 Chapter 7 Induction Motor 47
Induction Motors
The motor efficiency:
Motor torque:
sup
out
P
P
= q
m
out
P
e
= T
10/8/2014 360 Chapter 7 Induction Motor 48
Induction Motors
Input power
P
sup
Stator Copper loss
3 I
sta
2
R
sta
Rotor Copper loss
3 I
rot
2
R
rot
Stator Iron loss
3 V
sta
2
/ R
c
Ventilation and
friction losses
Output power
P
out
Air gap
power P
ag
Developed power
P
dv
= 3 I
rot
2
R
rot
(1s)/s
Air gap
Figure 7.21 Motor energy balance flow diagram.
10/8/2014 360 Chapter 7 Induction Motor 49
7.3.4 Motor performance
analysis
10/8/2014 360 Chapter 7 Induction Motor 50
Induction Motors
1) Motor impedance
V
sup
Z
sta
Z
rot_t
(s)
Z
m
I
sta
I
rot_t
I
m
Figure 7.22 Simplified motor
equivalent circuit.
Z
rot_t
s ( ) j X
rot_t
R
rot_t
+ R
rot_t
1 s ( )
s
+ :=
Z
m
j X
m
R
c
j X
m
R
c
+
:=
Z
mot
s ( ) Z
sta
Z
m
Z
rot_t
s ( )
Z
m
Z
rot_t
s ( ) +
+ :=
10/8/2014 360 Chapter 7 Induction Motor 51
Induction Motors
1) Motor impedance
V
sup
Z
sta
Z
rot_t
(s)
Z
m
I
sta
I
rot_t
I
m
Figure 7.22 Simplified motor
equivalent circuit.
Z
rot_t
s ( ) j X
rot_t
R
rot_t
+ R
rot_t
1 s ( )
s
+ :=
Z
m
j X
m
R
c
j X
m
R
c
+
:=
Z
mot
s ( ) Z
sta
Z
m
Z
rot_t
s ( )
Z
m
Z
rot_t
s ( ) +
+ :=
Z
sta
j X
sta
R
sta
+ :=
10/8/2014 360 Chapter 7 Induction Motor 52
Induction Motors
2) Motor Current
Figure 7.22 Simplified motor
equivalent circuit.
V
sup
V
mot
3
:= V
sup
254.034 V =
I
sta
s ( )
V
sup
Z
mot
s ( )
:=
I
rot_t
s ( ) I
sta
s ( )
Z
m
Z
m
Z
rot_t
s ( ) +
:=
V
sup
Z
sta
Z
rot_t
(s)
Z
m
I
sta
I
rot_t
I
m
10/8/2014 360 Chapter 7 Induction Motor 53
Induction Motors
3) Motor Input Power
S
sup
s ( ) 3 V
sup
I
sta
s ( )
:= P
sup
s ( ) Re S
sup
s ( )
( )
:=
Pf
sup
s ( )
P
sup
s ( )
S
sup
s ( )
:= Q
sup
s ( ) Im S
sup
s ( )
( )
:=
4) Motor Output Power and efficiency
P
dev
s ( ) 3 I
rot_t
s ( )
( )
2
R
rot_t
1 s ( )
s
:=
P
mech
s ( ) P
dev
s ( ) P
mech_loss
:=
q s ( )
P
mech
s ( )
P
sup
s ( )
:=
10/8/2014 360 Chapter 7 Induction Motor 54
Induction Motors
s 0.1 % 0.2% , 100 % .. :=
0 20 40 60 80 100
0
10
20
30
40
P
mech
s ( )
hp
P
motor
hp
s
%
P
max
s
max
Operating Point
Figure 7.24 Mechanical output power versus slip.
10/8/2014 360 Chapter 7 Induction Motor 55
Induction Motors
5. Motor Speed
rpm
1
min
:= n
sy
f
p
2
:= n
sy
1800rpm =
n
m
s ( ) n
sy
1 s ( ) :=
e
m
s ( ) 2 t n
m
s ( ) :=
6. Motor Torque
T
m
s ( )
P
mech
s ( )
e
m
s ( )
:=
10/8/2014 360 Chapter 7 Induction Motor 56
Induction Motors
Figure 7.26 Torque versus slip.
s 0.5% 0.6% , 80% .. :=
0 20 40 60 80
0
50
100
150
200
T
m
s ( )
N m
s
%
10/8/2014 360 Chapter 7 Induction Motor 57
Induction Motors
Figure 7.26 Torque versus speed.
n
max
s 0.5% 0.6% , 80% .. :=
200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800
0
25
50
75
100
125
150
175
200
T
m
s ( )
N m
T
rated
N m
n
m
s ( )
rpm
T
max
Operating Point
10/8/2014 360 Chapter 7 Induction Motor 58
Induction Motors
7.3.4.5.Motor Starting torque
When the motor starts at s = 1,
The ventilation losses are zero and the friction
loss is passive. The negative friction loss does not
drive the motor backwards.
The mechanical losses are zero when s = 1
This implies that the starting torque is calculated
from the developed power instead of the
mechanical output power.
10/8/2014 360 Chapter 7 Induction Motor 59
Induction Motors
7.3.4.5. Motor Starting torque
T
m_start
s ( )
3 I
rot_t
s ( )
( )
2
R
rot_t
1 s ( )
s
2 t n
sy
1 s ( )
:=
T
m_start
s ( )
3 I
rot_t
s ( )
( )
2
R
rot_t
s
2 t n
sy
:=
10/8/2014 360 Chapter 7 Induction Motor 60
Induction Motors
The resistances and reactance in the equivalent
circuit for an induction motor can be
determined by a series of measurements. The
measurements are:
Noload test. This test determines the magnetizing
reactance and core loss resistance.
Blockedrotor test. This test gives the combined
value of the stator and rotor resistance and
reactance.
Stator resistance measurement.
10/8/2014 360 Chapter 7 Induction Motor 61
Induction Motors
7.3.6.1.Noload test
The motor shaft is free
The rated voltage supplies the motor.
In the case of a threephase motor:
the linetoline voltages,
line currents
threephase power using two wattmeters are
measured
10/8/2014 360 Chapter 7 Induction Motor 62
Induction Motors
7.3.6.1. Noload test
Stator Rotor
X
sta
X
rot_t
R
rot_t
I
rot_t
= small
V
sta
R
sta
V
no_load
X
m
R
c
Air gap
R
rot_t
(1s)/s
s ~ 0
I
no_load
Fig 7.29 Equivalent
motor circuit in no
load test
Fig. 7.30 Simplified
equivalent motor
circuit in noload test
I
no_load
X
m
R
c
V
no_load_ln
10/8/2014 360 Chapter 7 Induction Motor 63
Induction Motors
7.3.6.1.Noload test
V
no_load_ln
V
no_load
3
:= V
no_load_ln
120.089 V =
P
no_load_A
P
no_load
3
:= P
no_load_A
95W =
R
c
V
no_load_ln
2
P
no_load_A
:=
S
no_load_A
V
no_load_ln
I
no_load
:=
Q
no_load_A
S
no_load_A
2
P
no_load_A
2
:=
X
m
V
no_load_ln
2
Q
no_load_A
:=
10/8/2014 360 Chapter 7 Induction Motor 64
Induction Motors
7.3.6.2. Blockedrotor test
The rotor is blocked to prevent rotation
The supply voltage is reduced until the motor current is
around the rated value.
The motor is supplied by reduced voltage and reduced
frequency. The supply frequency is typically 15 Hz.
In the case of a threephase motor:
the linetoline voltages,
line currents
threephase power using two wattmeters are measured
10/8/2014 360 Chapter 7 Induction Motor 65
Induction Motors
7.3.6.2. BlockedRotor test
Figure 7.32 Simplified
equivalent motor circuit
for blockedrotor test
Figure 7.31 Equivalent
motor circuit for
blockedrotor test
Stator Rotor
X
sta
X
rot_t
R
rot_t
I
rot_t
V
sta
R
sta
V
blocked
I
blocked
X
m
R
c
Air gap
f = 15 Hz
X
e
= X
sta
+ X
rot_t
R
e
= R
sta
+ R
rot_t
f = 15 Hz
V
blocked_ln
I
blocked
10/8/2014 360 Chapter 7 Induction Motor 66
Induction Motors
7.3.6.2. BlockedRotor test
V
blocked_ln
V
blocked
3
:= V
blocked_ln
21.939 V =
P
blocked_A
P
blocked
3
:= P
blocked_A
160W =
R
e
P
blocked_A
I
blocked
2
:=
R
rot_t
R
e
R
sta
:=
The stator resistance was measured directly
10/8/2014 360 Chapter 7 Induction Motor 67
Induction Motors
7.3.6.2. BlockedRotor test
The leakage reactance
at 15 Hz
Z
blocked
V
blocked_ln
I
blocked
:=
The magnitude of the
motor impedance
X
e_15Hz
Z
blocked
2
R
e
2
:=
The leakage reactance
at 60 Hz
X
e
X
e_15Hz
60Hz
15Hz
:=
10/8/2014 360 Chapter 7 Induction Motor 68
Numerical Example
10/8/2014 360 Chapter 7 Induction Motor 69
Induction Motors
Calculate :
a) The equivalent circuit parameters
b) Motor rated current and synchronous speed
Draw the equivalent circuit
f 60Hz :=
p 4 :=
pf
mot
0.8 := V
mot_ll
208V := P
mot_rated
30hp := Motor rating:
I
dc
75A := V
dc
12V := DC test
f
br
15Hz := I
br
71A := P
br
2100W := V
br
21V := Blocked Rotor test, 15Hz
I
nL
22A := P
nL
1600W := V
nL
208V := No load test, 60 Hz
A three phase 30hp, 208V, 4 pole, 60Hz, wye connected induction
motor was tested, the obtained results are:
Calculate :
a) The equivalent circuit parameters
b) Motor rated current and synchronous speed
Draw the equivalent circuit
10/8/2014 360 Chapter 7 Induction Motor 70
Induction Motors
No load test , Determine the core losses Rc and magnetizing
reactance Xm
P
nL_1F
P
nL
3
:= V
nL_ln
V
nL
3
:=
Single phase values:
R
c
V
nL_ln
( )
2
P
nL_1F
:= R
c
27.04O =
Y
nL
I
nL
V
nL_ln
:= Y
nL
0.183S =
X
m
i
1
Y
nL
2 1
R
c

\


.
2
:= X
m
5.573iO =
10/8/2014 360 Chapter 7 Induction Motor 71
Induction Motors
Block Rotor test ,
Neglect the magnetizing branch. Consider only the X
sta
+X
rot
and
R
sta
+ R
rot
X
br
X
sta
X
rot
+ R
br
R
sta
R
rot
+
Single phase values: P
br_1F
P
br
3
:= V
br_ln
V
br
3
:=
Resistance value is:
R
br
P
br_1F
I
br
2
:= R
br
0.139O =
10/8/2014 360 Chapter 7 Induction Motor 72
Induction Motors
Z
br
V
br_ln
I
br
:= Z
br
0.171O =
X
br_15Hz
i Z
br
2
R
br
2
:= X
br_15Hz
0.099iO =
The reactance at 60 Hz is:
X
br_60Hz
X
br_15Hz
60
15
:= X
br_60Hz
0.398iO =
X
br
i Z
br
2
R
br
2

\

.
60Hz
f
br
:= X
br
0.398iO =
10/8/2014 360 Chapter 7 Induction Motor 73
Induction Motors
Determination of R1 and R2 and X1 and X2
X
sta
X
br
2
:= X
rot
X
sta
:= X
sta
0.199iO =
Y connected motor
R
sta
V
dc
2I
dc
:= R
rot
R
br
R
sta
:=
R
sta
0.08O = R
rot
0.059O =
10/8/2014 360 Chapter 7 Induction Motor 74
Induction Motors
a) The equivalent circuit parameters
Rotor
Air gap
Stator
sta
I
c
I
m
jX
m
R
c
sta
jX R jX R jX R
I
sta
V
sup_ln
I
rot
rot
jX R jX R jX R
rot
R
rot
(1s) / s
a) The equivalent circuit parameters
10/8/2014 360 Chapter 7 Induction Motor 75
Induction Motors
C) Motor rated current and synchronous speed
S
rated
P
mot_rated
pf
mot
:=
S
rated
27.964kVA =
I
mot_rated
S
rated
3 V
mot_ll
:= I
mot_rated
77.62A = rpm
1
min
:=
n
synch
f
p
2
:=
n
synch
30Hz = n
synch
1800rpm =