By: Er.

Amit Mahajan

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A passive optical network is a point-to-multi-point architecture for delivering last-mile connectivity without any active components in the distribution network. A Passive Optical Network consists of optical line terminator (OLT) located at the Central Office(CO) 2.set of associated optical network units-ONUs, (or optical network terminals-ONTs) located at the customer’s premise. optical distribution network (ODN) comprised of fibers an passive splitters or couplers for connectivity Information Flows Downstream Point to multipoint (P2MP) Upstream Shared

FTTx Fiber To The x (FTTx) x = H = Home x = C = Curb or x =N = Neighborhood x = P = Premises x = B = Business or x = O = Office

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Increase bandwidth to Gb/s or higher in the future using multiple wavelengths Increase reach between CO and customer Reduce fiber cost, one fiber to OTL to optical splitter Support downstream broadcast Analog video Digital Video Video over IP Reduce cost via use of passive components

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Cost Need to deploy new infrastructure replace copper with fiber

•First PONs introduced in late 80s in telecommunication services • Full Service Access Network group (FSAN) •Founded by leading telecommunication service providers •Find ways to overcome the last mile problem

Broadband Passive Optical Network (BPON): • ITU does considerable improvement work on APON standard. • ATM is not favoured protocol anymore, standard is open to any data link layer protocol. • Standard does not rely on a specific protocol. • APON becomes Broadband Passive Optical • Network (BPON).

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Gigabit Passive Optical Network (GPON): GPON standard (ITU-T G.983.4) released shortly after BPON work was done. Further bandwidth improvement due to new techniques allowing for dynamic bandwidth allocation (DBA).

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ATM Passive Optical Network (APON) First type of PON using the ATM protocol as data link protocol. International Telecommunication Union (ITU) releases first standard ITU- T G.983.3 (final approvement 2001) APON Standard

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Ethernet Passive Optical Network (EPON) Ethernet in the First Mile taskforce (IEEE), use Ethernet protocol for transmission in PONs. EFM no longer active since their work has been completed and included in the 802.3 standard package. Further work on EPON is now done by the IEEE under the name of the new standard (proposal) for 10G EPON.

EPON is both 1.Downstream: packets are brodcasted by the OLT towards all ONUs (shared media). Extraction at ONU is done if the packet‘s destination MAC address matches the ONU‘s address.   2. Upstream: each ONU sends its traffic towards the OLT, but not to the other ONUs (p2p). OLT processes frames from any ONU. Point-to-multipoint (P2MP) 

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Several possible topologies tree, bus, ring are used that must provide Most efficient cabling Shortest possible round-trip-time (distance)

1.Broadband Internet application 
 FTTH in Japan started from simple application of IP/Ethernet and it is still dominant Simple indoor ONU enabling economical Broadband access of 100 Mbit/s effort service The service is like simple extension of ADSL


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IP triple play application  Home Gateways to separate IP video and provide POTS conversion Entire network based on IP and Ethernet

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