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What are Smart Cards?
Smart Cards are cards similar in shape
and size to a plastic credit card, containing
a microprocessor and memory (which allows
it to store and process data) and complying
with the ISO 7816 standard.

In laymans terms a Smart Card is a very small
computer embedded on a plastic card

Smart Card Components
Carrier: The basic material of which the card body is made.
Carrier should be :
Resistant to mechanical failure.
Able to withstand high temperatures.
PVC [Poly Vinyl Chloride], ABS [Acrylonitrile Butadiene
Styrene] and PETP [Poly Ethylene Terephthalate] often
PVC: All rounder
ABS: Brittle but withstands higher temperatures
PETP: High flexibility
Smart Card Components
Processor or the CPU
Currently all processors are 8 bit ones with CI SC
Typical Clock Speeds: 5 MHz.
Card Companies want proven modules.
Lower power consumption.
Area limitations.
Future: Will slowly move to 32 bit architecture due to
J avaCards.
Smart Card Components
ROM: Read Only Memory
Used for storing fixed programs. Holds the SCOS.
Typically varies from 2KB to around 16 KB.
Once written, cannot be changed.
Occupies the least area.

PROM: Programmable Read Only Memory
Used for loading card serial number.
Very small, typically just 32 bytes.
Smart Card Components
EEPROM: Electrically Erasable Read Only Memory
Used for storing data that might change. Similar to a
Holds various applications and their data.
Can be read or written to subject to permissions.
Typically varies from 2KB to 32 KB depending on need.

RAM: Random Access Memory
Used as temporary storage.
Erased on power off.
Typically varies between 128 Bytes to 512 Bytes.
Smart Card Components
I /O I nterface: I nput Output I nterface
Controls data flow to and from the card.
Flow occurs one bit at a time in a half duplex manner.
Typical Data flow rate is 9600 bits/sec.

Smart Card Area Restrictions
Reasons for 25 mm
How it effects component selection

Area required to hold 1 bit with various memories:
ROM 10m x 10m =100 m2
EEPROM 20m x 20m =400 m2
RAM 40m x 40m =1600 m2

Smart Card Readers
Smart Card by itself is useless. Requires a reader.
Reader is often called the Read-Write Unit as it can read
as well as write to the card.
Readers of two types:
I nsertion Readers: Cheaper, but manual.
[Card Swipe Machine]
Motorized Readers: Automatic card capture and
release. Costly. [Bank ATM Machines]
Cost of a reader varies from $10 to $100.
Readers often come with keypad for entry of PI N.
Smart Card Standards

Standards necessary to encourage interoperability.
Main Standards connected to Smart Cards:
I SO 7816

Smart Card Applications
Pre-paid Telephone Cards
Mobile Telephony
Financial Cards
Access Control
Chip is tamper resistant.
I nformation stored on the card can be PI N protected
and/or read write protected.
Capable of performing data encryption
Capable of processing info.
Post issuance update of information and application.
The biggest problem facing smart cards is security and the problem is
two fold. The first issue is that not all smart cards are in fact secure.
The second issue with security involves public perception of the
technology. People must believe that the cards are secure. This
depends to a great extent upon actual security, but people must also
be convinced of it.
A third issue concerns who holds responsibility for the card. I f the
cash balance is wiped clean by a memory failure, who is liable, the
person or the bank? I f a transaction is not recorded, where are the
lines drawn?
The final problem which smart cards will face in their move to diffuse
extensively involves product complements