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Workshop on Arduino

ABHIKALPAN
PDPM IIITDM Jabalpur
Contents
Introduction to Arduino
Introduction to Arduino Integrated Development Environment (IDE)
Digital/ Analog data
Programming the Arduino
Some Basic Sensors and Actuators
What is an Arduino
ARDUINO IS AN OPEN-SOURCE ELECTRONICS PROTOTYPING
PLATFORM BASED ON FLEXIBLE, EASY-TO-USE HARDWARE AND
SOFTWARE. IT'S INTENDED FOR ARTISTS, DESIGNERS, HOBBYISTS AND
ANYONE INTERESTED IN CREATING INTERACTIVE OBJECTS OR
ENVIRONMENTS.
[taken from the introduction page of Arduino website:
www.Arduino.cc]
ARDUINO IS A DEVELOPMENT BOARD THAT MAKES DEVELOPMENT
OF MICROCONTROLLER BASED PROJECTS SO EASY THAT ALMOST
ANYONE CAN DO IT
Some Features of Arduino
Arduino is an open source platform
This means everything they do and develop is open to all to learn and
modify
They upload the circuit diagrams, component list, software interface
etc. on their website
Huge community support
Open source libraries developed by community members
Why Arduino
It is simple- plug a USB cable and you are good to go
It is open source- hence you are paying for components and not for
development of the product
It is cheap (as compared to other closed source projects)
You can buy Arduino based boards from other manufacturers
(freeduino, roboduino, InduinoX)
It has huge community support- you can find answers to almost all
your questions

About Arduino UNO
Microcontroller- ATMEGA 328
Operating Voltage 5V (Input 7-12V)
14 Digital I/O pins and 6 analog Input Pins
6 PWM pins
USB port
Power Port
Arduino IDE
IDE stands for Integrated Development Environment
Programming a microcontroller used to have multiple steps
Write a program through a text editor
Run it through a compiler to get output file
Run the output file to get a HEX format file
Move the HEX file from computer to microcontroller
An Integrated Development Environment combines all this in a single
simple program
It has ha text editor along with some buttons and everything else is
taken care of in the background
Installing the Arduino IDE and drivers
Download the Arduino software (IDE + driver package) from Arduino
website: http://arduino.cc/en/Main/Software
Start the installation by opening the installer
Plug the USB cable to the board and the Arduino
Open the Device manager to confirm the driver installation and verify
the COM port used
(Setup the Board and COM port under the tools menu)
Arduino IDE
Programs in Arduino are called Sketches
Menu Bar
Shortcut Bar
Serial Monitor
Editing Window
Output Window

Digital and Analog Data
Digital data is like Objective type questions in an examination
Either you are right or wrong- there is no partial right or wrong
Similarly anything above a threshold voltage is taken as (1) or HIGH
and anything below a threshold voltage is taken as a (0) or LOW
Analog data is like essay type questions
You can be right or wrong or you can be right up to some degree
Similarly analog data can be Zero or Full as compared to a reference
or it can be a fraction of the reference
Examples of analog and digital data
If you switch on a light bulb it is either ON with full intensity or OFF
There is nothing in between
This is an example of Digital input
If you press the accelerator pedal of a car, there are various speed
settings
Between the full speed and stopped condition there are numerous
other conditions
Since Microcontroller does not understand fractions, it converts this
analog data to digital data
ADC and PWM
ADC and PWM are the methods to convert Analog data to digital data
and vice a versa
ADC converts Analog Data to digital and PWM is used to simulate
analog output using a digital source
For ADC a reference is set and is give a numeric value depending on
ADC resolution
Input analog voltage is compared to the reference voltage and
proportionally a numeric value is assigned to this input
Example:
ADC and PWM
A PWM or Pulse Width modulation is used to maintain an
equivalent analog signal over a period of time by giving pulses of
high signal and low signal
If half of the time high signal is given and half the time low signal
is given, then over the entire period effectively half the total
output voltage has been given
If this switching between high and low is done fast enough the
signal will appear like an analog signal
Duty Cycle and frequency of a PWM are its defining
characteristics
Duty cycle is the % of time for which the pulse was high in the
period
Programming in Arduino
Blink
Fade
Analog Read
Motor Control
Servo
Serial Communication
Sensors and Actuators
Potentiometer
IR sensor/ Encoders
Ultrasonic Sensor
DC Motor
H-Bridge

Potentiometer
IR proximity Sensor
Ultrasonic Sensor
H-Bridge
Thank You