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Impression Management

Perception of self image & behaviour

Presentation by

This leads us to…

Impressions…

This leads us to… Impressions…

What is impression management?

Impression management refers to the activity of controlling information in order to

steer others’ opinions in the service of personal or social goals.

Impression management (IM) theory states that any individual or organization must establish and maintain impressions that are congruent with the perceptions they want to convey to the public (Erving Goffman, 1959)

The goal is for one to present themselves the way in which they would like to be thought of by the individual or group they are interacting with. This form of management generally applies to the first impression.

Tactics of Impression Management/ Self

Presentation

  • 1. Ingratiation: This is a class of strategic behaviors illicitly designed to influence a particular other person concerning the attractiveness of one's personal qualities.

The goal of ingratiator is being likeable. This involves complimenting another person or indulging in flattery with certain amount of credibility and honesty. It also

involves conforming, another person’s view point. It has been observed that we like

people who think or act like us.

  • 2. Intimidation: In this strategy the person arouses fear among others to get the work done. He does not care about being likeable, all he wants is to control others and exercise his powers.

  • 3. Self- promotion: This is a kind of advertising. The self-promoter wants to be seen as competent in certain areas. He may acknowledge minor flaws in his skills while emphasizing stronger points of his personality.

  • 4. Exemplification: In this strategy, the person tries to elicit the impression of moral worthiness and integrity while creating a feeling of guilt among others. When a person says,” I will finish this work even if I fall sick but you go and enjoy.” he is using this strategy.

  • 5. Supplication: In this strategy the person advertises his weaknesses in order to get sympathy. The person portrays himself as helpless to get the help from others. Although, a person may use all the five tactics on different occasions, some people specialize in one or two tactics. Sometimes they use more than one strategy to influence others. Self-presentation tactics seem to be a matter of selecting certain characteristics and omitting others rather than a deliberate deception. Some people may stick to one tactic for so long that it may become a consistent aspect of their personality.

Some situations where we use IM…

At an interview

Some situations where we use IM… At an interview At a party/ social gathering At our

At a party/ social gathering

Some situations where we use IM… At an interview At a party/ social gathering At our

At our office/ work space

Some situations where we use IM… At an interview At a party/ social gathering At our

In our MBA class

Some situations where we use IM… At an interview At a party/ social gathering At our

Organisations that adopt IM methods - ABG (value driven) - Tatas (trustworthy, family), - Accenture (High-performance, Delivery)

Some popular case studies of IM…

Some popular case studies of IM… • • • Vijay Mallya Business Tycoon Impression: – Successful

Vijay Mallya

Business Tycoon

Impression:

 

Successful (constantly in news because of his new acquisitions, brand/ product launches, etc)

Stylish (always impeccably dressed whether its formal business-dos or casual McDowell’s evening

Flamboyant Flaunts the best of suits, shoes, sun-glasses, cars, cigars, Lionel Richie for a private birthday party!

Socialite seen with Page 3 and Bollywood as well as international celebrities (like Rolling Stones)

Technique - Self Promotion, Ingratiation, Intimidating

• • • Narayan Murthy Founder of Infosys, Software Engineer Impression – Simple, Hardworking, Focused man

Narayan Murthy

Founder of Infosys, Software Engineer

Impression

 

Simple, Hardworking, Focused man from the South Of India

Example of ‘dare to dream’, thus being a

 

role model for many Indians

 

Dresses in formal but simplistic styled suits/ casuals. Does not indulge in fashion or trends

Stays away from glamour, Bollywood or any such associations

Does not talk about his honours/

accolades until asked Wife is involved in a lot of social projects

Technique Self Promotion/ Exemplification

Further…

An individual might exhibit such different behavior not only because of his own desire to be viewed somewhat differently by his public, but also because his public (friend, family, colleagues, et) have different expectations or demands regarding what sort of person you should be

Impression management is not risk-free. Becoming excessively concerned over others’ opinions can cause anxiety, thereby increasing health problems. And

engaging in highly deceptive forms of impression management runs the risk that people will see through the act

Thus, engaging in impression management can help to ensure that social

interactions go smoothly

In conclusion…

Therefore, what you see , is not always what it is !

Therefore, what you see,

Therefore, what you see , is not always what it is !

is not always what it is!

Thank you!