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Induction Cooking Theory and Operation

By S. S. Kulkarni
1 R-L-C FUNDAMENTALS, ENERGY STORAGE EQUATIONS
2 MAGNETIC CIRCUIT FUNDAMENTALS & MAGNETIC MATERIALS
3 DC, AC CIRCUITS & THEORY OF LOSSES IN MAGNETIC
CIRCUITS DUE TO HYSTERESIS, EDDY CURRENTS AND SKIN EFFECTS.
4 MAGNETIC MATERIALS FOR HIGH FREQUENCY OPERATIONS
DISCUSSIONS , Q & A
5a Diode/Transistor Characteristics and Transistor Linear/saturation mode )
6 RECTIFIER CIRCUITS, LINEAR/NON-LINEAR LOAD & HARMONIC
GENERATION
7 EFFECT OF HARMONICS & ELECTRICAL/MAGNETIC INTERFERENCE
8 MAINS FILTER TO ATTENUATE HARMONICS
DISCUSSIONS, Q & A
9 LINEAR/SWITCHING CIRCUITS & COMPONENTS LIKE BJT, IGBT, MOSFET
10 BJT, IGBT, MOSFET INPUT/OUTPUT CHARACTERISTICS
11 GATE DRIVER CIRCUITS & SWITCHING LOSSES
12 BUCK, BOOST & FLY-BACK TOPOLOGIES
DISCUSSIONS, Q & A
13 POWER FACTOR CORRECTION CIRCUITS
14 INVERTE - CIRCUITS- SINGLE SWITCH, HALF BRIDGE & FULL BRIDGE
15 PWM TECHNIQUE TO CONTROL VOLTAGE * REDUCE LOSSES
16 APPLICATIONS OF RESONANT CIRCUITS FOR DC/AC CONVERTION
DISCUSSIONS, Q & A
5b AC->DC & DC->AC CONVERTIONS (RECTIFIERS & INVERTERS)
32 DEVELOPING TEST PROCEDURE FOR QUALITY CONTROL & SERVICING
DISCUSSIONS, Q & A
17 THERMAL MANAGEMENT, HEATSINK DESIGN
18 PRINCIPLE OF INDUCTION HEATING
19 ADVANTAGES & DISADVANTAGES OF INDUCTION HEATING
20 INDUCTION HEATING CIRCUITS TOPOLOGIES & ADVANTAGES
/ DISADVANTAGES, DISCUSSIONS, Q & A
21 INDUCTION HEATER COMPONENTS
22 CIRCUIT WAVEFORM, MEASUREMENT OF POWER EFFICIENCY
23 INSTRUMENTATIONS: - MEASUREMENT OF VOLTAGE, CURENT,
POWER, INDUCTANCE, CAPACITANCE, FLUX & TEMPERATURE.
24 SENSORS FOR CURRENT, FLUX, TEMPERATURE
DISCUSSIONS, Q & A
25 BASICS OF MICROCONTROLLER
26 MICROCONTROLLER DATA/ADDRESS BUS, MEMORY MANAGEMENT,
I/O PORTS, PWM, COMMUNICATIONS
27 DISPLAY TECHNOLOGY: - LED, LCD, CHARACTER AND GRAPHIC DISPLKAY
28 TOUCH MEMBRANE SWITCHES AND INTERFACING TO MICROCONTROLLER
DISCUSSIONS, Q & A
29 BASICS OF MICROCONTROLLER PROGRAMMING
30 CORELATING THEORY TO EXISTING INDUCTION COOKER CIRCUITS
31 QUALITY CONTROL MEASURES TO BE TAKEN

Definitions of LCR

and
Hence average power across capacitor in circuit is Zero.
Also capacitor current increases as frequency of voltage
applied across capacitor increases. At very high frequency
capacitor act as short circuit.


V = I*R
So if applied voltage across resistor is sinusoidal then
Current is also sinusoidal and in phase with voltage
across it
Capacitance is a property of dielectric material to store electric
charge and given by equation as
dT
dV
C
dT
dQ

Q = CV; and
V
C
Q

d
A
r

0
= C
so if applied voltage is sinusoidal across capacitor
then the current through the capacitor leads by
90
0
to voltage.
for parallel plate capacitor
dt
dV
C I then
2
2
2
1
2
1
CV dt
dt
dV
C dt
dt
dV
V C dt
dt
dV
VC VIdt E

where E is energy stored in joules in the capacitor.
Think what happens when current is passed through a
capacitor? Does it store charge? If yes which polarity?
Can Capacitor store energy if disconnected from charging circuit?
Inductance is a property of coil and measured as
I
N
L


and hence
dT
d
N
dT
dI
L

and according to faradays law
is induced voltage. So induced voltage
dT
dI
L V
and voltage induced across inductor because of dc current is Zero.
dT
d
N

and voltage induced across inductor because of dc current is Zero.
Inductor current will lag by 90
0
to inductor voltage when
excited by AC voltage.
Also DC voltage cant be applied across inductor
Continuously otherwise it will act as a short circuit.
dt
dI
L V
2
2
2
1
2
1
LI dt
dt
dI
L dt
dt
dI
I L dt
dt
dI
LI VIdt E

If

then where E is energy stored in joules in the Inductor.
Can Inductor hold back energy if current is disconnected?
Classification of Magnetic Materials
(a) Orbital Magnetic Moment m0 & (b) Spin Magnetic Moment ms of an electron.
Relationship of magnetisation vector M, magnetic flux density
B, and permeability m

The magnetic flux density corresponding to M is Bm =
0
M. In the
presence of an applied magnetic field H, the total magnetic flux
density in the magnetic material is given as
B =
0
H +
0
M =
0
(H +M), and M = X
m
H where is called magnetic
susceptibility
Diamagnetism:

r
< 1
no remanence
orbit distortion
e.g., copper, mercury, gold, zinc

Paramagnetism:

r
> 1
no remanence
orbit and spin alignment
e.g., aluminum, titanium, platinum

Ferromagnetism:

r
>> 1
remanence, coercivity, hysteresis
self-amplifying paramagnetism
Curie temperature
e.g., iron, nickel, cobalt
Types of magnetic materials
(a) Un-magnetised domains. (b) Magnetised domains.
3 Magnetic recording materials
Ferromagnetic materials
1 Soft magnetic materials
2 Hard magnetic materials
Soft magnetic materials
Soft magnetic materials have high permeability and low
coercivity. = (B / H) ; B =
0
H + I & =
0
+ H / I =
0
+
For obtaining soft magnetic properties
a) Materials with low magnetic anisotropy, low magnetostriction
and high saturation magnetization
b) Annealing for reducing defects in a material,
which makes domain wall move easily.
c) Ring shape for reducing magnetic shape anisotropy.
1. Fe-Si alloys: 3%Si-Fe, 6.5% Si-Fe (s ~ 0 )
2. Pemalloy: K1 ~ 0, s ~ 0 for 78%Ni-Fe , 4%Mo-79%Ni-Fe
4. Spinal ferrites such as Mn0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4, Ni0.3Zn0.7Fe2O4
for high frequency applications
5. YIG: Microwave applications
6. Amorphous alloys
7. Nanocrystals

Ferromagnetism
(i) magnetic polarization is produced by collective
action of similarly oriented spins within
magnetic domains
(ii) very high permeability
(iii) magnetic hysteresis
(v) remnant magnetic polarization (remanence)
(vi) coercive magnetic field (coercivity)
(iv) depolarization above the (magnetic) Curie
temperature
H
B
B
r
H
c
first magnetization
Magnetic Properties
para- and diamagnetic materials:
0
( ) B H M
M H
0 r
B H
r
1
ferromagnetic materials:
0 0
( , ) ( , )
p p
B B H M H M H M
-1.5
-1
-0.5
0
0.5
1
1.5
-5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5
Magnetic Field [kA/m]
F
l
u
x

D
e
n
s
i
t
y

[
T
e
s
l
a
]

hardened steel
soft iron
3%Si-Fe alloy
This material is for power and distribution transformers, which
are used under the AC with a lower frequency. The energy loss
in these transformers generally consists of magnetic core loss
and coil loss due to joule heating in the copper coils.
Core loss = classical eddy current loss +
eddy current loss due to domain wall movement
+ acoustic loss due to magnetostrictive deformation of
the core under changing flux.

For reducing core loss, decreasing lamination
thickness, increasing resistivity, decreasing domain
size and decreasing magnetostriction are effective.
Figure 1: Law relating the current direction and the resultant
flux direction - cork-screw rule
When the current i amperes flows through a conductor, the
flux wraps around in a similar manner as that of a direction
of travel of cork-screw when turned in clockwise direction.
F =BXI FBI Rule
where B is direction of flux density, I is
direction of current flow and F is resultant
force experienced by current carrying conductor
Magnetic Circuits
Production of Magnetic Field: In order to determine the
direction of flux created due flow of current in a conductor;
consider the diagram in figure 1.
Production of Magnetic Field (continued)
Consider the magnetic core shown in the diagram of Figure 2. It
has a winding carrying a current of i amperes and N turns. It
generates a magneto motive force (MMF) F of N.i ampere (A).
Figure 2: A simple magnetic Core
Since the number of turns, N
is dimensionless; the SI unit
for MMF is just ampere,
denoted by A.
The MMF creates a magnetic field
in core having an intensity of H
ampere-turns / meter along the
length of the magnetic path. Upon
integrating the magnetic field
intensity along themagnetic path,
we get,
H dl = N.i ampere (A) ..(1)
The above is the Ampere's law governing the production of a
magnetic field by a current carrying coil. If the path of
integration is the mean path length of the core lc, Amperes law
becomes;
Production of Magnetic Field (Continued)
This MMF F drives through the magnetic core, a flux
Webers. The flux can be related as:
= N.i/R = F/R.. (3)

H.l
c
= N.i (2)
The term R refers to reluctance of the magnetic core. The
MMF has to drive the flux against this reluctance R. The
reluctance of the magnetic core may be given by the
following expression:
R = l
c
/ . A
c
(4)
Where
l
c
refers to the mean length of the magnetic path in meters
Ac refers to the cross-sectional area of the flux path in meter
2

and the term refers to the permeability of the magnetic material.
Production of Magnetic Field (Continued)
The unit for R is 1/henry or 1/H. The unit for is H/m. The
permeability of free space or air is
0
and is given by;

0
= 4 x10-7 H/m.. (5)

Remember that each ferromagnetic material has its own
relative permeability (r) and can be
found from manufacturer where;
=
0
x
r
(6)

A simple magnetic core Relative permeability is a convenient
way to compare the magnetizability different materials. For
Example, the steels used in modern machines have relative
permeability in the range 2000 to 6000. This means that, for a
given amount of current, 2000 to 6000 times more flux is
established in a piece of steel than in a corresponding area of
air. Obviously, the metal in a transformer or a
motor core may plays an extremely important role in
increasing and concentrating the magnetic
flux in the device.
Since the permeability of iron is much higher than that of Air,
a major portion of the flux in configuration, likes that of Figure
2, remains inside the core instead of travelling through the
surrounding Air, which has lower permeability. The small
portion of flux that does not travel through the iron core, but
travels through Air path is called leakage flux. Treatment of
leakage flux is very important in transformer and motors.
Production of Magnetic Field (Continued)
The flux density B may be defined as B = / A
c
(7)
Where dS is the differential unit of the cross-sectional area. If the
flux density vector B is perpendicular to a plane of area A
c
, and if
the flux density B is constant throughout the area, then this
equation reduces to
= B.Ac ..(8)
Thus, the total flux in the core in Figure 2 due to the current
i in the winding is
) 9 ..( ..........
c
C
C
l
NiA
BA


Magnetic Field Intensity, Relative Permeability and
Reluctance
In the previous lecture basics of magnetic circuits are covered
with display of the similarities between magnetic and electric
circuits parameters, such as current I is analogues to flux
, etc...

Magnetic flux behaves in the same manner as the current
flowing in closed loops and many of magnetic circuits
applications are of different shapes, sizes, and may
come in unified or composite ferromagnetic materials.
Example 1: N turns of wire are wound around a toroidal core
of a ferromagnetic material with permeability . Determine Bf,
in the ferromagnetic core; Hf in the core; and Hg in the air gap.
Figure 3 Magnetic circuit of Example 1
Solution
Applying Amperes circuital law
If flux leakage is neglected, the
same total flux will flow in both
the ferromagnetic core and in the
air gap. If the fringing effect of

NI = Hdl
the flux in the air gap is neglected, the magnetic flux density B
in both the core and the air gap will also be the same.
If the radius of the cross section of the core is much smaller
than the mean radius of the toroid, the magnetic flux density B
in the core is approximately constant, and the magnetic flux in
the circuit is = BS

where the f and g denote ferromagnetic
and gap, respectively. In the
ferromagnetic core and in the air gap,
Both Rf and Rg are called reluctance.
Fig. 4 Equivalent magnetic and electric circuit of the example1
It has to be noted that all the formulae and methods of circuit
analysis learned in electric circuits analysis eg. current/voltage
division rules, superposition, series and parallel, etc are to be
applied in solving magnetic circuits.
Similar to Kirchhoffs voltage law, we may write, for any closed
path in a magnetic circuit,
N I = R
Around a closed path in a magnetic circuit the algebraic sum of
ampere-turns is equal to the algebraic sum of the products of
the reluctances and fluxes.
It has to be noted that all the formulae and methods of circuit
Analysis concerning electric circuits analysis eg. current/voltage
division rules, superposition, series and parallel, etc are to be
applied in solving magnetic circuits.
Example 2 the magnetic
circuit in Fig. 5 (a)
Figure 5 Magnetic circuits for Example 2
Solution
The reluctances are:
The two loop equations are
Solving these simultaneous equations, we have
One of the reasons we make a narrow gap is that As the air gap of
a coil is increased, the linear inductance region of the coil will also
increase, and the coil will not saturate for the same excitation current;
which would cause saturation if the air gap was not included.
Hysteresis

The magnetisation behaviour of the ferromagnetic materials is described by the B-
H magnetisation curve (hysteresis loop) as shown in figure below.
down to zero, the curve will move from point "a" to point b. At this point, it can be seen
that some magnetic flux remains in the material even though the magnetising force is zero.
This is referred to as the point of retentivity on the graph and indicates the remanence or
level of residual magnetism in the material. (Some of the magnetic domains remain aligned
but some have lost there alignment.)
The loop is generated by measuring the
magnetic flux B of a ferromagnetic material
while the magnetising force H is changed. A
ferromagnetic material that has never
been previously magnetised or has been
thoroughly demagnetised will follow the
dashed line as H is increased. As the line
demonstrates, the greater the amount of
current applied (H+), the stronger the
magnetic field in the component (B+).
At point a almost all of the magnetic domains are aligned and an additional increase in
the magnetising force will produce very little increase in magnetic flux. The material has
reached the point of magnetic saturation. When H is reduced
As the magnetising force is reversed, the curve moves to point c,
where the flux has been reduced to zero. This is called the point of
coercivity on the curve. (The reversed magnetising force has flipped
enough of the domains so that the net flux within the material is
zero.) The force required to remove the residual magnetism from the
material, is called the coercive force or coercivity of the material.
Eddy Current Losses
When a changing magnetic field cuts through a sample of metal or
magnetic materials that is not connected to a circuit, by Faradays
law, a circulating current is induced. This current is known as eddy
current, it is localised within that material and has a flow pattern
as shown in fig. Below
This circulating current creates a magnetic field that opposes the
external magnetic field. The direction of the eddy current is described
by Lenzs law. The stronger of the external magnetic field or the
greater of the electrical conductivity of the material, the eddy current
that is developed will be stronger and also yields stronger opposing
force. Eddy current creates losses through Joule heating, and it
reduces the efficiency of device that operates under alternating
magnetic field condition such as iron core of transformers and
alternating current motors.
This power loss is known as eddy current loss due to the induced
eddy current in the metal or magnetic materials. In order to reduce
the eddy current loss, the resistivity of the material is increased by
adding silicon in the metal or ferromagnetic materials. Another
effective way to achieve low eddy current loss is by using lamination
of electrical metal sheets. These metal sheets are coated with
insulator which breaks the eddy currents path.
The power due to the eddy current loss is given as
P
e
= k d
2
f
2
B
p
2
, unit: W/m3
Diodes and transistors are non-
linear device: V IR!
Rectifier Circuit
+9V
-5V
ORing Circuit
+6.3v
R1
1k
D3
D2
D1
0.000ms 0.500ms 1.000ms 1.500ms 2.000ms 2.500ms 3.000ms 3.500ms 4.000ms 4.500ms 5.000ms
100.0 V
80.00 V
60.00 V
40.00 V
20.00 V
0.000 V
-20.00 V
A: d1_k
Rectifier Circuit
A
1kHz
D4
D3
D2
D1
R1
R4
10K
+10V
100K
R3
10V
R2
1K
hfe = 100
Q1
2N2222
Single-phase Half-wave rectifiers
In half wave rectification of a single-phase supply, either the positive
or negative half of the AC wave is passed, while the other half is
blocked. Because only one half of the input waveform reaches the
output, mean voltage is lower. Half-wave rectification requires a
single diode in a single-phase supply, or three in a three-phase
supply. Rectifiers yield a unidirectional but pulsating direct current;
half-wave rectifiers produce far more ripple than full-wave rectifiers,
and much more filtering is needed to eliminate harmonics of the AC
frequency from the output.

Half-wave rectifier
The no-load output DC voltage of an ideal half wave rectifier for a
sinusoidal input voltage is:

Where: V
dc
, V
av
- the DC or average output voltage,
V
peak
, the peak value of the phase input voltages,
V
rms
, the root-mean-square value of output voltage.
Electric Shock, Isolation & Protection

p
dc
p
rms
V
V
V
V &
2
Full-wave rectification
A full-wave rectifier converts the whole of the input waveform to one of constant
polarity (positive or negative) at its output. Full-wave rectification converts both
polarities of the input waveform to pulsating DC (direct current), and yields a higher
average output voltage. Two diodes and a center tapped transformer, or four diodes in
a bridge configuration and any AC source (including a transformer without center tap),
are needed. Single semiconductor diodes, double diodes with common cathode or
common anode, and four-diode bridges, are manufactured as single components.


For single-phase AC, if the transformer is center-tapped, then two diodes back-to-back
(cathode-to-cathode or anode-to-anode, depending upon output polarity required)
can form a full-wave rectifier. Twice as many turns are required on the transformer
secondary to obtain the same output voltage than for a bridge rectifier, but the power
rating is unchanged.

0.000ms 5.000ms 10.00ms 15.00ms 20.00ms 25.00ms 30.00ms 35.00ms 40.00ms 45.00ms 50.00ms
100.0 A
50.00 A
0.000 A
-50.00 A
-100.0 A
A: d1_k
B: v1#branch
Rectifier Circuit
C
B
A
+
C1
2200uF
50 Hz
D4
D3
D2
D1
R1
Full-wave rectifier using a center tap transformer and 2 diodes.
THD = 43.5%
Unity Power Factor Rectifiers
Fairchild PPT on EMI, EMC Compliance
EFFECT OF HARMONICS on ELECTRICAL &
MAGNETIC INTERFERENCE