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By S. S. Kulkarni

1 R-L-C FUNDAMENTALS, ENERGY STORAGE EQUATIONS

2 MAGNETIC CIRCUIT FUNDAMENTALS & MAGNETIC MATERIALS

3 DC, AC CIRCUITS & THEORY OF LOSSES IN MAGNETIC

CIRCUITS DUE TO HYSTERESIS, EDDY CURRENTS AND SKIN EFFECTS.

4 MAGNETIC MATERIALS FOR HIGH FREQUENCY OPERATIONS

DISCUSSIONS , Q & A

5a Diode/Transistor Characteristics and Transistor Linear/saturation mode )

6 RECTIFIER CIRCUITS, LINEAR/NON-LINEAR LOAD & HARMONIC

GENERATION

7 EFFECT OF HARMONICS & ELECTRICAL/MAGNETIC INTERFERENCE

8 MAINS FILTER TO ATTENUATE HARMONICS

DISCUSSIONS, Q & A

9 LINEAR/SWITCHING CIRCUITS & COMPONENTS LIKE BJT, IGBT, MOSFET

10 BJT, IGBT, MOSFET INPUT/OUTPUT CHARACTERISTICS

11 GATE DRIVER CIRCUITS & SWITCHING LOSSES

12 BUCK, BOOST & FLY-BACK TOPOLOGIES

DISCUSSIONS, Q & A

13 POWER FACTOR CORRECTION CIRCUITS

14 INVERTE - CIRCUITS- SINGLE SWITCH, HALF BRIDGE & FULL BRIDGE

15 PWM TECHNIQUE TO CONTROL VOLTAGE * REDUCE LOSSES

16 APPLICATIONS OF RESONANT CIRCUITS FOR DC/AC CONVERTION

DISCUSSIONS, Q & A

5b AC->DC & DC->AC CONVERTIONS (RECTIFIERS & INVERTERS)

32 DEVELOPING TEST PROCEDURE FOR QUALITY CONTROL & SERVICING

DISCUSSIONS, Q & A

17 THERMAL MANAGEMENT, HEATSINK DESIGN

18 PRINCIPLE OF INDUCTION HEATING

19 ADVANTAGES & DISADVANTAGES OF INDUCTION HEATING

20 INDUCTION HEATING CIRCUITS TOPOLOGIES & ADVANTAGES

/ DISADVANTAGES, DISCUSSIONS, Q & A

21 INDUCTION HEATER COMPONENTS

22 CIRCUIT WAVEFORM, MEASUREMENT OF POWER EFFICIENCY

23 INSTRUMENTATIONS: - MEASUREMENT OF VOLTAGE, CURENT,

POWER, INDUCTANCE, CAPACITANCE, FLUX & TEMPERATURE.

24 SENSORS FOR CURRENT, FLUX, TEMPERATURE

DISCUSSIONS, Q & A

25 BASICS OF MICROCONTROLLER

26 MICROCONTROLLER DATA/ADDRESS BUS, MEMORY MANAGEMENT,

I/O PORTS, PWM, COMMUNICATIONS

27 DISPLAY TECHNOLOGY: - LED, LCD, CHARACTER AND GRAPHIC DISPLKAY

28 TOUCH MEMBRANE SWITCHES AND INTERFACING TO MICROCONTROLLER

DISCUSSIONS, Q & A

29 BASICS OF MICROCONTROLLER PROGRAMMING

30 CORELATING THEORY TO EXISTING INDUCTION COOKER CIRCUITS

31 QUALITY CONTROL MEASURES TO BE TAKEN

Definitions of LCR

and

Hence average power across capacitor in circuit is Zero.

Also capacitor current increases as frequency of voltage

applied across capacitor increases. At very high frequency

capacitor act as short circuit.

V = I*R

So if applied voltage across resistor is sinusoidal then

Current is also sinusoidal and in phase with voltage

across it

Capacitance is a property of dielectric material to store electric

charge and given by equation as

dT

dV

C

dT

dQ

Q = CV; and

V

C

Q

d

A

r

0

= C

so if applied voltage is sinusoidal across capacitor

then the current through the capacitor leads by

90

0

to voltage.

for parallel plate capacitor

dt

dV

C I then

2

2

2

1

2

1

CV dt

dt

dV

C dt

dt

dV

V C dt

dt

dV

VC VIdt E

where E is energy stored in joules in the capacitor.

Think what happens when current is passed through a

capacitor? Does it store charge? If yes which polarity?

Can Capacitor store energy if disconnected from charging circuit?

Inductance is a property of coil and measured as

I

N

L

and hence

dT

d

N

dT

dI

L

and according to faradays law

is induced voltage. So induced voltage

dT

dI

L V

and voltage induced across inductor because of dc current is Zero.

dT

d

N

and voltage induced across inductor because of dc current is Zero.

Inductor current will lag by 90

0

to inductor voltage when

excited by AC voltage.

Also DC voltage cant be applied across inductor

Continuously otherwise it will act as a short circuit.

dt

dI

L V

2

2

2

1

2

1

LI dt

dt

dI

L dt

dt

dI

I L dt

dt

dI

LI VIdt E

If

then where E is energy stored in joules in the Inductor.

Can Inductor hold back energy if current is disconnected?

Classification of Magnetic Materials

(a) Orbital Magnetic Moment m0 & (b) Spin Magnetic Moment ms of an electron.

Relationship of magnetisation vector M, magnetic flux density

B, and permeability m

The magnetic flux density corresponding to M is Bm =

0

M. In the

presence of an applied magnetic field H, the total magnetic flux

density in the magnetic material is given as

B =

0

H +

0

M =

0

(H +M), and M = X

m

H where is called magnetic

susceptibility

Diamagnetism:

r

< 1

no remanence

orbit distortion

e.g., copper, mercury, gold, zinc

Paramagnetism:

r

> 1

no remanence

orbit and spin alignment

e.g., aluminum, titanium, platinum

Ferromagnetism:

r

>> 1

remanence, coercivity, hysteresis

self-amplifying paramagnetism

Curie temperature

e.g., iron, nickel, cobalt

Types of magnetic materials

(a) Un-magnetised domains. (b) Magnetised domains.

3 Magnetic recording materials

Ferromagnetic materials

1 Soft magnetic materials

2 Hard magnetic materials

Soft magnetic materials

Soft magnetic materials have high permeability and low

coercivity. = (B / H) ; B =

0

H + I & =

0

+ H / I =

0

+

For obtaining soft magnetic properties

a) Materials with low magnetic anisotropy, low magnetostriction

and high saturation magnetization

b) Annealing for reducing defects in a material,

which makes domain wall move easily.

c) Ring shape for reducing magnetic shape anisotropy.

1. Fe-Si alloys: 3%Si-Fe, 6.5% Si-Fe (s ~ 0 )

2. Pemalloy: K1 ~ 0, s ~ 0 for 78%Ni-Fe , 4%Mo-79%Ni-Fe

4. Spinal ferrites such as Mn0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4, Ni0.3Zn0.7Fe2O4

for high frequency applications

5. YIG: Microwave applications

6. Amorphous alloys

7. Nanocrystals

Ferromagnetism

(i) magnetic polarization is produced by collective

action of similarly oriented spins within

magnetic domains

(ii) very high permeability

(iii) magnetic hysteresis

(v) remnant magnetic polarization (remanence)

(vi) coercive magnetic field (coercivity)

(iv) depolarization above the (magnetic) Curie

temperature

H

B

B

r

H

c

first magnetization

Magnetic Properties

para- and diamagnetic materials:

0

( ) B H M

M H

0 r

B H

r

1

ferromagnetic materials:

0 0

( , ) ( , )

p p

B B H M H M H M

-1.5

-1

-0.5

0

0.5

1

1.5

-5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5

Magnetic Field [kA/m]

F

l

u

x

D

e

n

s

i

t

y

[

T

e

s

l

a

]

hardened steel

soft iron

3%Si-Fe alloy

This material is for power and distribution transformers, which

are used under the AC with a lower frequency. The energy loss

in these transformers generally consists of magnetic core loss

and coil loss due to joule heating in the copper coils.

Core loss = classical eddy current loss +

eddy current loss due to domain wall movement

+ acoustic loss due to magnetostrictive deformation of

the core under changing flux.

For reducing core loss, decreasing lamination

thickness, increasing resistivity, decreasing domain

size and decreasing magnetostriction are effective.

Figure 1: Law relating the current direction and the resultant

flux direction - cork-screw rule

When the current i amperes flows through a conductor, the

flux wraps around in a similar manner as that of a direction

of travel of cork-screw when turned in clockwise direction.

F =BXI FBI Rule

where B is direction of flux density, I is

direction of current flow and F is resultant

force experienced by current carrying conductor

Magnetic Circuits

Production of Magnetic Field: In order to determine the

direction of flux created due flow of current in a conductor;

consider the diagram in figure 1.

Production of Magnetic Field (continued)

Consider the magnetic core shown in the diagram of Figure 2. It

has a winding carrying a current of i amperes and N turns. It

generates a magneto motive force (MMF) F of N.i ampere (A).

Figure 2: A simple magnetic Core

Since the number of turns, N

is dimensionless; the SI unit

for MMF is just ampere,

denoted by A.

The MMF creates a magnetic field

in core having an intensity of H

ampere-turns / meter along the

length of the magnetic path. Upon

integrating the magnetic field

intensity along themagnetic path,

we get,

H dl = N.i ampere (A) ..(1)

The above is the Ampere's law governing the production of a

magnetic field by a current carrying coil. If the path of

integration is the mean path length of the core lc, Amperes law

becomes;

Production of Magnetic Field (Continued)

This MMF F drives through the magnetic core, a flux

Webers. The flux can be related as:

= N.i/R = F/R.. (3)

H.l

c

= N.i (2)

The term R refers to reluctance of the magnetic core. The

MMF has to drive the flux against this reluctance R. The

reluctance of the magnetic core may be given by the

following expression:

R = l

c

/ . A

c

(4)

Where

l

c

refers to the mean length of the magnetic path in meters

Ac refers to the cross-sectional area of the flux path in meter

2

and the term refers to the permeability of the magnetic material.

Production of Magnetic Field (Continued)

The unit for R is 1/henry or 1/H. The unit for is H/m. The

permeability of free space or air is

0

and is given by;

0

= 4 x10-7 H/m.. (5)

Remember that each ferromagnetic material has its own

relative permeability (r) and can be

found from manufacturer where;

=

0

x

r

(6)

A simple magnetic core Relative permeability is a convenient

way to compare the magnetizability different materials. For

Example, the steels used in modern machines have relative

permeability in the range 2000 to 6000. This means that, for a

given amount of current, 2000 to 6000 times more flux is

established in a piece of steel than in a corresponding area of

air. Obviously, the metal in a transformer or a

motor core may plays an extremely important role in

increasing and concentrating the magnetic

flux in the device.

Since the permeability of iron is much higher than that of Air,

a major portion of the flux in configuration, likes that of Figure

2, remains inside the core instead of travelling through the

surrounding Air, which has lower permeability. The small

portion of flux that does not travel through the iron core, but

travels through Air path is called leakage flux. Treatment of

leakage flux is very important in transformer and motors.

Production of Magnetic Field (Continued)

The flux density B may be defined as B = / A

c

(7)

Where dS is the differential unit of the cross-sectional area. If the

flux density vector B is perpendicular to a plane of area A

c

, and if

the flux density B is constant throughout the area, then this

equation reduces to

= B.Ac ..(8)

Thus, the total flux in the core in Figure 2 due to the current

i in the winding is

) 9 ..( ..........

c

C

C

l

NiA

BA

Magnetic Field Intensity, Relative Permeability and

Reluctance

In the previous lecture basics of magnetic circuits are covered

with display of the similarities between magnetic and electric

circuits parameters, such as current I is analogues to flux

, etc...

Magnetic flux behaves in the same manner as the current

flowing in closed loops and many of magnetic circuits

applications are of different shapes, sizes, and may

come in unified or composite ferromagnetic materials.

Example 1: N turns of wire are wound around a toroidal core

of a ferromagnetic material with permeability . Determine Bf,

in the ferromagnetic core; Hf in the core; and Hg in the air gap.

Figure 3 Magnetic circuit of Example 1

Solution

Applying Amperes circuital law

If flux leakage is neglected, the

same total flux will flow in both

the ferromagnetic core and in the

air gap. If the fringing effect of

NI = Hdl

the flux in the air gap is neglected, the magnetic flux density B

in both the core and the air gap will also be the same.

If the radius of the cross section of the core is much smaller

than the mean radius of the toroid, the magnetic flux density B

in the core is approximately constant, and the magnetic flux in

the circuit is = BS

where the f and g denote ferromagnetic

and gap, respectively. In the

ferromagnetic core and in the air gap,

Both Rf and Rg are called reluctance.

Fig. 4 Equivalent magnetic and electric circuit of the example1

It has to be noted that all the formulae and methods of circuit

analysis learned in electric circuits analysis eg. current/voltage

division rules, superposition, series and parallel, etc are to be

applied in solving magnetic circuits.

Similar to Kirchhoffs voltage law, we may write, for any closed

path in a magnetic circuit,

N I = R

Around a closed path in a magnetic circuit the algebraic sum of

ampere-turns is equal to the algebraic sum of the products of

the reluctances and fluxes.

It has to be noted that all the formulae and methods of circuit

Analysis concerning electric circuits analysis eg. current/voltage

division rules, superposition, series and parallel, etc are to be

applied in solving magnetic circuits.

Example 2 the magnetic

circuit in Fig. 5 (a)

Figure 5 Magnetic circuits for Example 2

Solution

The reluctances are:

The two loop equations are

Solving these simultaneous equations, we have

One of the reasons we make a narrow gap is that As the air gap of

a coil is increased, the linear inductance region of the coil will also

increase, and the coil will not saturate for the same excitation current;

which would cause saturation if the air gap was not included.

Hysteresis

The magnetisation behaviour of the ferromagnetic materials is described by the B-

H magnetisation curve (hysteresis loop) as shown in figure below.

down to zero, the curve will move from point "a" to point b. At this point, it can be seen

that some magnetic flux remains in the material even though the magnetising force is zero.

This is referred to as the point of retentivity on the graph and indicates the remanence or

level of residual magnetism in the material. (Some of the magnetic domains remain aligned

but some have lost there alignment.)

The loop is generated by measuring the

magnetic flux B of a ferromagnetic material

while the magnetising force H is changed. A

ferromagnetic material that has never

been previously magnetised or has been

thoroughly demagnetised will follow the

dashed line as H is increased. As the line

demonstrates, the greater the amount of

current applied (H+), the stronger the

magnetic field in the component (B+).

At point a almost all of the magnetic domains are aligned and an additional increase in

the magnetising force will produce very little increase in magnetic flux. The material has

reached the point of magnetic saturation. When H is reduced

As the magnetising force is reversed, the curve moves to point c,

where the flux has been reduced to zero. This is called the point of

coercivity on the curve. (The reversed magnetising force has flipped

enough of the domains so that the net flux within the material is

zero.) The force required to remove the residual magnetism from the

material, is called the coercive force or coercivity of the material.

Eddy Current Losses

When a changing magnetic field cuts through a sample of metal or

magnetic materials that is not connected to a circuit, by Faradays

law, a circulating current is induced. This current is known as eddy

current, it is localised within that material and has a flow pattern

as shown in fig. Below

This circulating current creates a magnetic field that opposes the

external magnetic field. The direction of the eddy current is described

by Lenzs law. The stronger of the external magnetic field or the

greater of the electrical conductivity of the material, the eddy current

that is developed will be stronger and also yields stronger opposing

force. Eddy current creates losses through Joule heating, and it

reduces the efficiency of device that operates under alternating

magnetic field condition such as iron core of transformers and

alternating current motors.

This power loss is known as eddy current loss due to the induced

eddy current in the metal or magnetic materials. In order to reduce

the eddy current loss, the resistivity of the material is increased by

adding silicon in the metal or ferromagnetic materials. Another

effective way to achieve low eddy current loss is by using lamination

of electrical metal sheets. These metal sheets are coated with

insulator which breaks the eddy currents path.

The power due to the eddy current loss is given as

P

e

= k d

2

f

2

B

p

2

, unit: W/m3

Diodes and transistors are non-

linear device: V IR!

Rectifier Circuit

+9V

-5V

ORing Circuit

+6.3v

R1

1k

D3

D2

D1

0.000ms 0.500ms 1.000ms 1.500ms 2.000ms 2.500ms 3.000ms 3.500ms 4.000ms 4.500ms 5.000ms

100.0 V

80.00 V

60.00 V

40.00 V

20.00 V

0.000 V

-20.00 V

A: d1_k

Rectifier Circuit

A

1kHz

D4

D3

D2

D1

R1

R4

10K

+10V

100K

R3

10V

R2

1K

hfe = 100

Q1

2N2222

Single-phase Half-wave rectifiers

In half wave rectification of a single-phase supply, either the positive

or negative half of the AC wave is passed, while the other half is

blocked. Because only one half of the input waveform reaches the

output, mean voltage is lower. Half-wave rectification requires a

single diode in a single-phase supply, or three in a three-phase

supply. Rectifiers yield a unidirectional but pulsating direct current;

half-wave rectifiers produce far more ripple than full-wave rectifiers,

and much more filtering is needed to eliminate harmonics of the AC

frequency from the output.

Half-wave rectifier

The no-load output DC voltage of an ideal half wave rectifier for a

sinusoidal input voltage is:

Where: V

dc

, V

av

- the DC or average output voltage,

V

peak

, the peak value of the phase input voltages,

V

rms

, the root-mean-square value of output voltage.

Electric Shock, Isolation & Protection

p

dc

p

rms

V

V

V

V &

2

Full-wave rectification

A full-wave rectifier converts the whole of the input waveform to one of constant

polarity (positive or negative) at its output. Full-wave rectification converts both

polarities of the input waveform to pulsating DC (direct current), and yields a higher

average output voltage. Two diodes and a center tapped transformer, or four diodes in

a bridge configuration and any AC source (including a transformer without center tap),

are needed. Single semiconductor diodes, double diodes with common cathode or

common anode, and four-diode bridges, are manufactured as single components.

For single-phase AC, if the transformer is center-tapped, then two diodes back-to-back

(cathode-to-cathode or anode-to-anode, depending upon output polarity required)

can form a full-wave rectifier. Twice as many turns are required on the transformer

secondary to obtain the same output voltage than for a bridge rectifier, but the power

rating is unchanged.

0.000ms 5.000ms 10.00ms 15.00ms 20.00ms 25.00ms 30.00ms 35.00ms 40.00ms 45.00ms 50.00ms

100.0 A

50.00 A

0.000 A

-50.00 A

-100.0 A

A: d1_k

B: v1#branch

Rectifier Circuit

C

B

A

+

C1

2200uF

50 Hz

D4

D3

D2

D1

R1

Full-wave rectifier using a center tap transformer and 2 diodes.

THD = 43.5%

Unity Power Factor Rectifiers

Fairchild PPT on EMI, EMC Compliance

EFFECT OF HARMONICS on ELECTRICAL &

MAGNETIC INTERFERENCE

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